Agricultural mechanization and energy systems

A.Y. 2019/2020
8
Max ECTS
76
Overall hours
SSD
AGR/09
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The first part of the course wants to give the basic elements relative to the agricultural mechanisation (general knowledges, tractors, etc.) and to someone of the energy systems.
The fisrt goal of the second part will be the good level of knowledge on the construction characteristics and the field use about the main towed and hitched implements and the self-propelled machines used in agriculture. The second goal will deal with the production and the use of all the renewable sources concerning the agricultural mechanization, available as at present as in the future. In particular, the production chains and the use of biodiesel, biogas, bioethanol, hydrogen, etc. will be treated.The first part of the course wants to give the basic elements relative to the agricultural mechanisation (general knowledges, tractors, etc.) and to someone of the energy systems. The fisrt goal of the second part will be the good level of knowledge on the construction characteristics and the field use about the main towed and hitched implements and the self-propelled machines used in agriculture.
The second goal will deal with the production and the use of all the renewable sources concerning the agricultural mechanization, available as at present as in the future. In particular, the production chains and the use of biodiesel, biogas, bioethanol, hydrogen, etc. will be treated.
Expected learning outcomes
The student is able to acquire theoretical and practical knowledges (through field and laboratory exercises and technical visits), that will permit to him to choose and judge a system composed by energy and agricultural mechanisation elements.
The student:
a) will recognize the main towed and hitched implements and the self-propelled machines, how they run and their optimisation;
b) will arrange the main agricultural tasks;
c) will recognize the potential of the renewable sources into the agricultural mechanization farm management.The student is able to acquire theoretical and practical knowledges (through field and laboratory exercises and technical visits), that will permit to him to choose and judge a system composed by energy and agricultural mechanisation elements.
The student:
a) will recognize the main towed and hitched implements and the self-propelled machines, how they run and their optimisation;
b) will arrange the main agricultural tasks;
c) will recognize the potential of the renewable sources into the agricultural mechanization farm management.
Course syllabus and organization

Unique edition

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
Course syllabus
1. Common introduction at the two units (0.25 CFU). Elements for the technical-economical selection of the machinery and preliminary transformation plants in cereals chain, in Italy and in the other countries in which the cereals cultivation is popular.
2. Recall of the main basic elements of agricultural mechanics (0.5 CFU): Kinematics: linear and rotational speed, radial and tangential acceleration. Dynamics: forces (friction, tension, centrifugal force), work, torque, power. Efficiency concept. Transmission components: gears, belts and pulleys, clutches.
3. The tractor (1 CFU). Otto and Diesel cycle engines and relevant devices for the reduction of the polluting gas. Cooling and lubrication. Combustion air filtering. Diesel engine bench tests, performance curves. Tyres and steel and rubber tracks. Traction and rolling resistance coefficients.
4. Tractor-implement coupling (1 CFU): the PTO and its technical characteristics; hitch hook and its homologation standards; hydraulic lift and its technical characteristics; tractor hydraulic intakes. Tractor global efficiency (rolling resistance, transmission, PTO, hydraulic system and slippage).
5. Safety and ergonomics in cereals chain operations: field tractors and stability problems (characteristics, standards, tests). Universal joint and PTO shaft.
5. Technical visits in cereals farms, including the execution of tests on machinery, with data acquisition and relevant elaboration.
U.D. 2
a) Part of Agricultural Mechanization:
1. Implements used in cereals, vineyard and horticultural farms: for the soil tillage, the seeding, the fertilizing, the spraying, the forage management;
2. self-propelled machines for the harvesting of cereals, grape, vegetables;
b) part of Energy Systems:
1. technical plant and production characteristics and use into the machinery for biodiesel, biogas/biomethane, bioethanol, microhydro and thermal and electric energy from solar source.
c) technical visits in selected Research Centres and farms, with the measurement of some technical working parameters of the implements used in cereals, vineyard and horticultural farms; where available, knowledge of fuel production plants coming from renewable sources and managements characteristics into the agricultural machinery.
Prerequisites for admission
Units 1 and 2 - A basic knowledge of the most common agricultural self-propelled machinery and implements used in open field crop cultivation is required, as well as a good theoretical and practical acquisition of the most frequently adopted cultivation techniques adopted for the open field and specialized crops.
Teaching methods
U.D. 1 - The Unit 1 is structured as follows:
- Classroom lessons: 3 CFU
- Classroom practise: 0.5 CFU
- Field practise: 0.5 CFU
U.D. 2 - The Unit 2 is structured as follows:
- Classroom lessons: 3.5 CFU
- Field practise: 0.5 CFU
Bibliography
Books:
- G. Pellizzi (1996) - Mechanics and agricultural mechanization - Edagricole, Bologna;
- P. Biondi (1999) - Agricultural Mechanics - UTET, Turin;
Official lecture notes and other material useful for exam preparation, available on the websites:
- http://dpessina.altervista.org
- http://web.tiscali.it/profpessina
Assessement methods and criteria
Unit 1
The exam consists of a written and a subsequent oral parts, both to be carried out in each single session. Access to the oral part is only possible with an assessment that is not clearly negative in the written one.
The written test, to be carried out in 1.5 hours, consists of 4 exercises:
- the first two require the dimensioning of a tractor and/or an implement, in the execution of specific cultivation tasks, starting from the provided data;
- the next two consist of the description of broad topics concerning the program.
The oral exam consists of the preliminary discussion of the written and in the possible coming through of one or more topics related to the entire program.
For the attending students, an on-going test is foreseen (proposed at about half course), consisting of 26 closed-end questions and a description of a broad topic, included in those already presented during the course. The students who obtain a positive evaluation in the on-going test may carry out a shortened written test in the subsequent exam.

Unit 2
The exam is only oral, and consists of two questions structured as follows:
1 - description of the structure, operation and methods of use of the implements used for one or a series of agricultural processes;
2 - description of the structure, operation and running methods of one among the energy production systems using renewable sources coming from agricultural production.
The exam of the Unit 2 is considered passed with at least a sufficient evaluation.
Energy systems
AGR/09 - AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND MECHANIZATION - University credits: 4
Field activity: 16 hours
Laboratories: 8 hours
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Pessina Domenico
Mechanization
AGR/09 - AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND MECHANIZATION - University credits: 4
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Facchinetti Davide
Educational website(s)
Professor(s)
Reception:
by appointment
Via Celoria, 2 - ex DIA building (first on the right) - ground floor
Reception:
by appointment only (preferably defined via e-mail)
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali - via Celoria, 2 - 20133 Milano