Anatomy (1st year)

A.Y. 2019/2020
8
Max ECTS
108
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/16
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide students with: i) knowledge of the organization and structure of the human body and of the apparatuses, systems and organs that constitute it, according to a systematic and topographical orientation; ii) the understanding of the mechanisms by which this organization is achieved through organogenesis, using macroscopic, microscopic and molecular methods.
Expected learning outcomes
Students:
a) know the fundamental molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying genetic and epigenetic control of cells and organisms;
b) know the male and female gametogenesis, highlighting biological and genetic differences and effects;
c) are able to describe the transmission of inherited traits and the mechanisms that regulate normal and pathological phenotypic variation in humans;
d) analyze and interpret the results of molecular and genetic tests in clinical practice.
Course syllabus and organization

Unique edition

Responsible
Course syllabus
GENERAL ANATOMY
- General principles of body constructivity:
A) Systematic address: Apparatus and organs, definition and structure.
B) Topographic address: division into parts of the human body, their external examination (lines
superficial references) and their internal examination (body spaces)
- Anatomical terminology: position and movement terms.
MUSCOSKELETAL SYSTEM: Generality
- General information on bones: morphology; classification; general terminology; structure;
vascularization, innervation; development and growth.
- General information on the joints: synarthrosis and diarthrosis; classification of synarthrosis and
diarthrosis and structure; axes of movement.
- General information on muscles: morphology; classification; general terminology; structure. Structure
of tendons and aponeuroses. Vascularization and muscle innervation. Accessory organs
of the muscles.
MUSCOSKELETAL SYSTEM: Systematics
HEAD
- Skeleton: general morphological characters of the bones that make up the skull (splancno e
neurocranium); study of the skull as a whole: in-depth study of the exocranial pits
(temporal fossa, infratemporal fossa, pterigo-palatine fossa, orbital, nasal cavity
and buccal); in-depth study of endocranial pits (anterior cranial fossa,
medium and rear).
- Joints: temporomandibular joint.
- Muscles: Mimic muscles: general morphological and functional characteristics; Muscles
chewers: m. thunderstorm, m. masseter, m. external and internal pterygoid.
- Constructiveness of the head: limits and general organization.
RACHIS
- Skeleton: Vertebral column: general morphological characteristics of vertebrae and characters
badges of the various vertebral groups; atlas and axis.
- Joints: artic. of the spine and ligaments; artic. cranial-vertebral and membranes
atlooccipitali.
- Muscles of the rachis: general morphological and functional characteristics of the muscles of the
vertebral showers, fasciae and ventral muscles.
- Functional anatomy of the spine: physiological curves of the spine
NECK
- Muscles: Anterior and lateral muscles of the neck. Neck bands
- Constructiveness of the neck: limits, general organization, neck walls, neck bands, regions:
carotid region: carotid loggia; supraclavicular region: supraclavicular loggia.
CHEST
- Skeleton: general morphological characteristics of the coasts and the sternum.
- Joints: costovertebral and sternocostal joints.
- Intrinsic muscles: intercostal muscles and general morphological and functional characters
of others. Extrinsic muscles: thoracoappendicular muscles and fascial device,
spinoappendulare muscles, spinocostal muscles and diaphragm muscle.
- Functional anatomy of the thoracic cage.
- Constructiveness of the thorax: limits, general organization, thorax walls, reference lines.
ABDOMEN
- Muscles: rectus muscle, external oblique muscle, internal oblique muscle, transverse muscle e
square muscle of the loins. Bands of the anterolateral abdominal muscles. Inguinal canal.
- Constructivity of the abdomen: limits, general organization, abdomen walls, reference lines,
bands of anterolateral muscles, sheath of rectus muscles, regions. Inguinal canal
UPPER LIMB
- Skeleton: general morphological characters of the bones of the shoulder, arm and forearm;
nomenclature and mutual position of the bones of the hand.
- Joints: Artic. sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular. Artic. scapulohumeral and ligaments.
Artic. of the elbow, ligaments and interosseous membrane. Artic. distal ulnar radius. Artic. radiocarpal
and ligaments. Joints of the hand: general functional characteristics of the different complexes
joint.
- Muscles: Musc. intrinsic of the shoulder. Musc. of the arm and bands. Musc. forearm:
muscles
front; general morphological and functional characteristics of musc. lateral and musc. rear:
forearm fascial device. Hand muscles: musc. of the eminence tenar; characters
morphological and general functional of musc. of the eminence hypotenar, of the musculo-human and of the
musc. interosseous. Palmular aponeurosis.
- Functional anatomy of the upper limb.
LOWER LIMB
- Skeleton: general morphological characters of the hip bones. Basin as a whole (narrow
upper and lower, signs of pelvimetry, sexual differences). General morphological characters
of the bones of the thigh and leg. General morphological characters of the talus and calcaneus;
nomenclature and mutual position of the other bones of the foot.
- Joints: Artic. sacroiliac and ligaments. Pubic symphysis. Artic. coxofemorale and ligaments.
Artic. of the knee and ligaments. Artic. proximal and distal tibiofibularis. Interosseous membrane.
Artic. ankle and ligaments. Artic. of the foot: articular astragaleocalcaneale and general functional characters
of other joints.
- Muscles: Musc. hip. Bands, a gap in the muscles and a gap in the vessels. Musc. of the thigh.
Shoe triangle and adductor channel. Lata band. Musc. of the leg: morphological characters
and general functional of musc. anterior and musc. side; musc. posterior: musc. triceps of the
morphological and general functional characters of the others. Musc. of the foot: morphological characters
and general functional of musc. dorsal and plantar muscles.
- Functional anatomy of the lower limb.
CARDIOVASCULAR APPARATUS
- Definition and organic composition; arteries, veins and capillaries (definition, classification
and structure); definition and functional meaning of collateral branches, terminal branches,
distribution area, terminal arteries, anastomoses and collateral circles.
- Main data on fetal circulation and birth modifications.
HEART
- Morphology, location, orientation, external configuration, internal configuration, morphology
functional of the ventricles and heart valves, ratios and thoracocardiac topography,
structure, conduction system, vascularization and innervation.
- Development of the heart
- Pericardium
PULMONARY CIRCULATION
- Trunk and pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins.
GENERAL CIRCULATION: ARTERIES
- Systematics (ie: origin, course, main relationships, distribution area, collateral branches)
main with relative territory and terminal branches with relative territory) of the following
arteries: aorta (division into sections); ascending aorta: coronary; aortic arch: brachiocephalic trunk,
common carotid, external carotid, internal carotid, subclavian, axillary, brachial; aorta
chest; abdominal aorta: celiac, superior mesenteric, renal, spermatic and ovarian, mesenteric
inferior, common iliac, external iliac, internal iliac, femoral and popliteal.
GENERAL CIRCULATION: VEINS
- Systematics (ie: origin, course, main relationships, drainage area and principal
tributaries) of the following veins: superior cava, brachiocephalic venous tracts, subclavian, jugular
internal, axillary, external jugular, system of azigos veins; inferior quarry, iliac
common, internal iliac, external iliac, femoral; portal vein system (anastomosis and circles
collateral of the portal vein).
DISTRICT CIRCULATION
- Arterial and venous endocranial and exocranial circulation. Circle of Willis. Breasts dura mater.
- Arterial and venous parietal circulation of the trunk (neck, thorax, abdomen).
- Arterial, deep venous and superficial venous circulation of the upper limb.
- Arterial, deep venous and superficial venous circulation of the lower limb.
- Vascularization of the viscera of the trunk (neck, thorax, abdomen).
LYMPHATIC CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
- Definition and organic composition; definition and general structure of the lymphatic vessels.
MAIN LYMPHATICS TRUNKS
- Nomenclature and general area of drainage.
LYMPHATICS OF LOWER LIMB
- Inguinal lymphocenter: site, morphology and functional significance.
LYMPHATIC OF PELVI AND OF THE ABDOMEN
- Lomboaortic lymph nodes: site, subdivision and functional meaning.
CHEST LYMPHATICS
- Lymphatic collectors of the breast.
LINPHATICS OF THE UPPER LIMB
- Axillary lymphocenter: division into groups and functional significance
LIMPHATICS OF THE HEAD AND NECK
- General characters.
Thoracic duct
- Origin, course, main relationships and functional meaning
LYMPHOIDE ORGANS
- Thyme, spleen, lymph node, tonsils: shape, site, orientation, relationships and structure.
Splanchnology
- Systematic study of all viscera in the following ways:
1) General morphology and organoleptic characteristics
2) Situation, orientation, position and relationships, means of fixation and relative projections
3) Structure
4) Ultrastructure of:
- pulmonary alveolus (pneumocytes and air-blood barrier)
- nephron (renal corpuscle and blood-brain barrier)
- liver (hepatocyte, bile capillary, Disse space)
- epithelium lining the small intestine (enterocytes and microvilli)
5) Vascularization
6) Innervation
7) Morpho-functional references
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
- Definition and organic composition.
Mouth: vestibule; lips; cheeks; gums, teeth: number: general morphology characters
and structure; dentition; mouth cavity: walls; tongue.
Greater salivary glands; Parotid lodge
Isthmus of the jaws
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine
Liver
Extra hepatic biliary tract
Pancreas
Peritoneum: division of the peritoneal cavity; transverse mesocolon; overmedicated space;
small epiploon; great epiploon; splenic lodge; backwardness of the epiploons; underscore space;
months of the underscore space; pelvic floor; structure.
Development of the digestive system: outline
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
- Definition and organic composition.
External nose
Nasal and paranasal cavities
Larynx
Trachea and bronchi
Lung
pleure
Development of the respiratory system: outline
URINARY SYSTEM
- Definition and organic composition
Kidney
Goblets and renal pelvis
Ureter
Urinary bladder
Male urethra
Female urethra
Urinary tract development: outline.
MALE GENITAL APPARATUS
- Definition and organic composition
testis
Straight tubules and testis mesh
Epididymis
Vas deferens
Spermatic funicule
Ejaculator duct
Seminal vesicle
Prostate
External genitals: outline
Development of the male genital system: outline
FEMALE GENITAL SYSTEM
- Definition and organic composition
Ovary
Uterine tuba
Uterus
Vagina
External genitals: outline
Development of the female genital system: outline
PERINEUM
- Definition; pelvic diaphragm; sphincter anus muscle; urogenital diaphragm.
ENDOCRINE APPARATUS
- Definition and organic composition
Pituitary gland
Epiphysis
Thyroid
parathyroid
Pancreatic islets
Adrenal glands
paraganglia
Widespread endocrine system
NERVOUS APPARATUS
Definition and decomposition into parts.
MORPHOLOGY OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Neuron theory. The nervous circuits.
Morphology and general organization of the central nervous system. Vascularization of the neurasse.
Main stages in the development of the central nervous system.
Spinal Cord: Morphology, situation, relationships; roots; vertebro-medullary topography; neuromeri;
fixation means.
Internal conformation of the spinal cord; vascularization; structure and organization of
gray substance; organization of white matter.
Encephalon: Breakdown into parts, location, reports; encephalic nerves: nomenclature and emergency.
Brain stem: Breakdown into parts, external morphology and relationships; internal configuration;
nomenclature and location of the trunk's own nuclei, of the reticular formation and of the nos. of
brain nerves; white substance.
Cerebellum: Cerebellar peduncles, division into lobes; external morphology, internal configuration;
fissures; territories; intrinsic nuclei (site); structure of bark and architecture.
Lamina quadrigemina: Morphology, location, reports and main links. Area and nuclei
pretectal.
Diencephalon: Morphology, site, limits and division into parts; Subtalamo: nuclei and white matter;
Hypothalamus: nuclei; Epitalamo: components; Talamo: Morphology, location, nuclei; Metatalamo: bodies
geniculate.
Telencephalon: external morphology; fissures: central of Rolando, lateral of Silvio, parietooccipitale,
calcarine, limbic; subdivision in lobes; telencephalon nuclei: nomenclature, morphology
and headquarters; white matter organization; internal capsule (limits, division into parts, contained in fibers
of the individual parts); corpus callosum (morphology, site, fiber organization); fornix, septum
pellucid; telencephalic cortex: cytotectonics and myelotectonics; cortical areas.
Limbic system: Definition and location of the components.
Vascularization of the brain
Ventricular cavity of the brain: general device, IV ventricle, mesencephalic aqueduct of
Silvio, III ventricle, lateral ventricles.
Meninges: Spinal meninges and encephalic meninges; canvases and choroid plexuses; cerebrospinal fluid.
ORGANIZATION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Neurons afferents: general somatic sensitivity pathways; optical pathways; acoustic pathways; streets
vestibular; taste routes; olfactory pathways.
Effector systems (motors) and efferent control devices: descending ways of motion; systems
sub-cortical effectors: telencephalic nuclei of the base; efferent control systems: the cerebellum;
organization of the axial control device: interneurons, specific muscle receptors and i
their spinal reflex arcs.
Brain stem: nuclei of oculomotor nerves; the regulation of eye movements; nuclei of the
trigeminal nerve; nuclei of the facial nerve proper and intermediate; nerve nuclei
statoacustico; nuclei of glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves (mixed nerves); nerve nuclei
hypoglossal; reticular formation of the brainstem; black substance; red core; complex
olive oil lower; the medial longitudinal fasciculus.
Vegetative nervous system: Pathways of visceral sensitivity; hypothalamus; limbic system:
organization and connections.
Telencephalic cortex: connections of the telencephalic cortex; thalamus-cortical connections;
functional considerations.
Chemical organization of the central nervous system: cholinergic systems; systems
monoamine; systems that use amino acids as neurotransmitters; neuropeptides
modulators.
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Nerve: definition, structure, fiber content; mode of termination of the motor fibers;
termination mode of the sensitive fibers; receptors (definition, construction methods and
classification; cutaneous receptors and sensory skin innervation; muscle receptors: fused
neuromuscular and muscle-tendon organs of Golgi; receptor gloms: definition; glomus
carotid; gustatory receptors: type and distribution; olfactory receptors: type and location); ganglia:
(definition, types, functional meaning).
Spinal nerves: definition, constitution, site, course, spinal nerve branching (radiculus and
anterior and posterior roots); metameria (dermatomers and myomers); posterior spinal nerve branches:
territory of distribution.
Anterior branches of the spinal nerves:
- cervical plexus: collaterals (distribution area); phrenic nerve (origin, course, territory
distribution);
- brachial plexus: training methods, location and reports; collateral branches (territory of
distribution); origin, course and territory of distribution of the terminal branches (radial, muscle
cutaneous, median, ulnar).
- intercostal nerves
- lumbar plexus: training method and location; collateral (territory of distribution); course and
territory of distribution of terminal branches (obturator, femoral).
- sacral plexus: training methods and venue; collateral (territory of distribution); course and
territory of distribution of the ischial, tibial, common peroniere, superficial peroniere,
deep peroniere.
- plexus plexus: generality; collateral and n. pudendo (territory of distribution)
Brain nerves: fiber content, course and area of distribution of all encephalic nerves and
of their main branches: value and site of the ganglion attached to the encephalic nerves.
Sympathetic system: General organization; neurassial centers; peripheral organs: preganglion fiber
(origin, course, termination), postganglion fiber (origin, course, termination, structure);
metasimpatico; orthosympathetic: chain of the paravertebral sympathetic (site, composition,
subdivision into sections, connections); prevertebral or preaortic ganglia (site); parasympathetic.
Sympathetic: cervical segment of the chain (main branches); thoracic segment (plexuses
prevertebral: pl. aortic, pl. cardiac, pl. pulmonary; n. splanchnic); lumbar segment (plexus
prevertebral: pl. celiac, pl. hypogastric); pelvic segment (prevertebral plexus: pl.pelvico).
Innervation: language; iris; gh. salivary and gh. lacrimal; heart; bladder; gh. adrenal; skin; groundwork
anatomical aspects of vasomotor regulation.
Apparatus of sight: eyeball: general conformation; fibrous frock: sclera, cornea;
vascular habit: coroidea, ciliary body, iris; nervous habit: retina (cones and rods, macula e
fovea); n. optical (papilla); dioptric system; orbital cavity, musc. extrinsic of the eyeball;
conjunctiva; tear ducts.
Ear system: external ear: components; middle ear: tympanic cavity, membrane
of the eardrum, chain of ossicles, auditory tube; inner ear: bone and membranous labyrinth
(components and general device); semicircular canals (general morphology and orientation),
vestibular receptors; cochlear duct (general morphology), organ of Corti and receptors.
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
Generality. Skin: subdivision in layers and structure; skin appendages: nomenclature and characteristics
General; breast; vascularization and innervation of the skin.
Prerequisites for admission
Preliminary knowledge not needed; a knowledge of Chemistry, Physics is recommended, to borrow the principles that regulate the mass flow and information with the external environment and the interaction between the elements that make up the open system "human body".
From the histology accept the hierarchical assembly of elements of the submicroscopic field spatially arranged to construct tissues whose properties are the main determinants of the morpho-functional characteristics of the human body.
Teaching methods
The subject will be provided in 12 credits of formal teaching and 6 credits of non-formal teaching provided in the classroom of microscopic anatomy with the aid of optical microscopes and in the classroom of macroscopic anatomy with the aid of 3D models
Bibliography
Susan Standring Anatomia del Gray. Le basi anatomiche per la pratica clinica Edizione: 41 Editore: Edra
Anno edizione: 2017
Keith L. Moore, Arthur F. Dalley Anne MR Agur Anatomia umana a orientamento clinico. Edizione: 3 Editore: CEA Anno edizione: 2015
Netter F.H Netter, Atlante di Anatomia Umana Edizione: 6 Editore: Edra Anno edizione: 2018
A. M. Gilroy, B. R. Mac Pherson Atlante di Anatomia - Prometheus Edizione: 3 Editore: EdiSeS Anno edizione: 2019
Assessement methods and criteria
The profit exam consists of:
· an ongoing oral evaluation at the end of the first term of the course about musculoskeletal system and architecture and structure of organs. The positive outcome removes these topics from the final exam.
· an oral evaluation at the end of the second term about splanchnology, neuroanatomy and topographical anatomy.
The ability to treat the ordered aggregate of physical objects and spaces assembled according to predetermined spatial relationships that constitute an organism and its physical subdivisions will be assessed: the organizational structure that constitutes a living organism and its parts (structure).
Familiarity with the conceptual entities necessary to understand, explain the conclusions drawn from anatomical observation, since the peculiarity of anatomy is that most of the concepts are physical entities (e.g. chest, heart, gland, lymphocyte).
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 8
Informal teaching: 48 hours
Lessons: 60 hours
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