The course presents the theoretical principles of Calorimetry and Thermal Analysis (Isothermal Calorimetry, DSC, Thermogravimetry, TMA, DMA) and the corresponding instrumentation with the help of laboratory training and exercises of data treatment. As for the specific application to the cultural heritage, the course includes techniques of micro-sampling and the investigation based on the artificial aging of materials.
Expected learning outcomes
The student acquires the basic expertise to collect micro-samples for the experimental investigation and to plan programs of artificial aging that may reproduce the spontaneous or damage-induced degradation of the materials. The laboratory experience adds some awareness of the sensitivity of the experimental approach and the importance of combining Calorimetry and Thermal Analysis with other kinds of investigation.
Lesson period: First semester
(In case of multiple editions, please check the period, as it may vary)
Front Lectures: Fundaments of Thermodynamics: enthalpy and heat capacity Fundaments of Chemical Kinetics: progress degree of a given process Relationship between process rate and associate heat flux Experimental detection of the heat flux: various kinds of calorimeters Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC): examples of current instruments The calorimetric trace: base line, signal, underlying area Thermo-Gravimetry Analysis (TGA): how a thermo-balance works. TGA and DTG trace Combined TG and DSC: advantages of the combination and uses to characterize materials Calorimetric and thermal analysis applications for the characterization of the aging of materials associated with processes of: protein denaturation (parchments); crystallization (fats and oils); glass transition (amorphous materials); gelation (polysaccharides), aggregation, oxidation, decomposition. Principles of Thermo-Mechanical and Dynamico-Mechanical Analysis (TMA and DMA): current instruments Laboratory: Preparation and execution of an DSC experiment on material of interest in the field of cultural heritage Preparation and execution of a (TGA) experiment on material of interest in the field of cultural heritage Processing of DSC and TG traces obtained.
Prerequisites for admission
Mathematics, General Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Physics
Front lectures, Calorimetry Laboratory, IT exercises on data analysis.
The teaching material consists of handouts provided during the course. Added to this are the slides presented during the lessons (pdf files) and scientific articles. Details and downloadable material are available on the teacher's website http://users.unimi.it/thalasa/dimitrios2.htm and on ARIEL. Finally links to websites for chemical education and textbooks are indicated.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The assessment of the actual achievement of the expected learning results by the student takes place through an oral exam with presentation of a laboratory report and a brief dissertation (10-minute PowerPoint presentation) on a topic chosen by the student. The following will be generally evaluated: knowledge of the theoretical principles of calorimetry and thermal analysis; the consistency of the laboratory report; the degree of study of the topic chosen by the student and the inherent bibliographical choice. To take the exam, you must register by the deadline set on the SIFA (http://www.unimi.it/). The evaluation is expressed by a mark out of thirty. The vote is communicated to each individual student by automated e-mail from the university minutes.