Teaching unit: Drug Analysis 1
The program of the course includes the presentation and discussion of the following topics:
- Introduction to the principles of quantitative chemical-pharmaceutical analysis.
- Introduction to the analytical techniques used for the quantitative analysis of substances registered in the current European Pharmacopoeia.
- Materials, equipment and laboratory techniques for quantitative chemical-pharmaceutical analysis (the analytical balance, operations for the correct use of the analytical electronic scale, sources of error in weighing, equipment and manipulations connected with weighing, dryers and desiccants, weighing mode, materials for laboratory equipment, equipment for gravimetric and volumetric analysis, calibration of volumetric glassware).
- Treatment and evaluation of statistical data (statistical treatment of experimental error, systematic error, random and gross error, accuracy and precision, sample and population, confidence intervals, Student's t, F test, Q test, analysis of variance, use of spreadsheets in chemical analysis).
- Volumetric analyses and their applications to the quantitative analysis of substances registered in the current European Pharmacopoeia (acid-base titrations, precipitated titrations, redox titrations, complexometric titrations, titrations in non-aqueous solvents, potentiometric titrations).
- Polarography, voltammetry, amperometry.
- UV-Visible Spectroscopy and its applications to the quantitative analysis of drugs according to the European Pharmacopoeia (theoretical principles, molecular orbitals and types of transitions, absorption characteristics of organic compounds, selection rules, instrumentation, absorption law, internal and external standard methods, method of standard additions, mixture analysis).
- Introduction to chromatography analysis (historical outline, classification and chromatographic techniques, chromatogram, distribution constant, retention factor, chromatographic resolution, plate theory, efficiency and selectivity, van Deemter equation, the general elution problem, symmetry of the peaks).
- Gas-chromatography and its applications to the quantitative analysis of drugs according to European Pharmacopoeia (classification of gas-chromatographic techniques, instrumentation and stationary phases, derivatization, quantitative analysis, applications of GC in European Pharmacopoeia, residual solvents).
- High performance liquid chromatography and its applications in the quantitative analysis of drugs according to European Pharmacopoeia (classification of HPLC techniques, stationary and mobile phases, UHPLC and nano-HPLC, instrumentation and detectors, quantitative analysis in HPLC and applications in European Pharmacopoeia) .
- Development and validation of an analytical method (criteria for choosing the optimal analytical method, development and optimization of the instrumental method, validation of the analytical method).
- Sample preparation (sampling, sample preparation and storage, sample preparation techniques, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-solid extraction, solid phase extraction, experimental and application aspects).
- The principles of Good Laboratory Practice.
Teaching unit: Laboratory of Drug Analysis 1
- Acid-base titrations: use of colorimetric indicators and potentiometric methods.
- Titrations with formation of precipitate: argentometry.
- Complexometric titrations: direct and inverse.
- Oxidation-reduction titrations: permanganometry, bromometry, iodimetry, iodometry.
- Titrations in non-aqueous solvents: use of colorimetric indicators and potentiometric methods.
- Spectrophotometric determinations: use of external standard calibration method and method of standard additions.
- Statistical treatment of results: average, median, standard deviation, absolute and relative error, confidence intervals; application of t-test, coupled t-test, F test, ANOVA.
Teaching unit: Food Chemistry
- Organic and inorganic nutrients: macro and microelements, simple sugars, polysaccharides, amino acids, proteins, lipids, minor components, anti-nutritional factors.
- Analysis of the main components of food: water, ash, lipids, reducing and non-reducing sugars, fibers, proteins.
- Non-enzymatic browning: changes induced by industrial and household processes.
- Oils and fats: chemical composition, minor components, hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity, functional properties of polyunsaturated fatty acids; olive oil, technology, refining; main seed oils for food use; analytical problems related to the preservation and sophistication of oils.
- Cereals: caryopsis, chemical composition; differences between wheat and durum wheat, flour, bread and pasta preparation; rice, characteristics and use; general information on minor cereals, rye, corn, oats, barley; gluten intolerance and alternative foods.
- Legumes: composition, characteristics of vegetable proteins, health properties, analytical problems.
- Additives: legislation and use criteria, toxicological problems; main classes: preservatives, antioxidants, gelling agents, thickeners, emulsifiers, sweeteners, dyes.
- Chemical contamination of natural and human-induced food: heavy metals, PCBs, PAHs, dioxins, agrochemicals, mycotoxins, toxins from bacteria.
Prerequisites for admission
Knowledge of general and inorganic chemistry and stoichiometry and analytical chemistry are required.
The frequency to the Laboratory of Analysis of Drugs 1 is subject to attendance at the Laboratory of Qualitative analysis of inorganic drugs.
The following prerequisites are required to take the exam: it is mandatory to have passed the exam of Analytical Chemistry and it is recommended to have taken the exam Organic Chemistry 1.