- Introduction to drug analysis - Qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of organic compounds - Tests to identify organic chemical functions: alcohols, polyalcohols, phenols, ketones and aldehydes, sugars, carboxylic acids and derivatives, amines, amino acids, heterocyclic compounds - Tests to identify classes of compounds of medicinal interest.
Solubility, partition coefficient, extraction techniques, ternary solubility diagrams - The solid state and its characterization (melting point, polymorphism, binary phase diagrams) - The liquid state and its characterization (boiling point, fractional distillation, phase diagrams of binary liquid mixtures) - Thermal analysis (TGA, TA DSC) - Refractometry - Polarimetry - Circular dichroism - Chiral compounds: chiroptical properties and analytical methods to determine enantiomeric composition - NIR spectroscopy and PCA analysis.
Individual laboratory training
Recognition of organic and metallorganic substances of pharmaceutical interest
Introduction to the analysis of organic compounds. Organoleptic examination. Combustion tests and residue analysis, recognition of metals in organometallic substances registered in the F.U.
Preparation of Lassaigne's solution for the detection of nitrogen, sulfur, halogens, phosphorus. Solubility of organic substances: solubility in water and reactive solvents; classification of substances based on their solubility.
Assays for the recognition of functional groups in organic substances: alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, polyalcohols, sugars, carboxylic acids, α-oxyacids, phenols, amines, amino acids, esters, amides.
Examination of the substances registered in the F.U. Pharmaceutical substance classes: general and specific tests for alkaloids, sulpha, xanthine, glycosides, various substances.
Recognition of inorganic substances of pharmaceutical interest.
Prerequisites for admission
To conveniently attend the lessons, the student should possess basic knowledge of organic chemisty, medicinal chemistry and analytical chemistry.
- Slides available in Ariel - V. Cavrini - Guida al riconoscimento di composti di interesse farmaceutico - Esculapio Bologna - Vogel - Chimica Organica Pratica - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana - D. G. Watson - Analisi Farmaceutica - EdiSES s.r.l. Napoli - H. H. Bauer, G. D. Christian, J. E. O'Relly - Analisi strumentale - Piccin, Padova - R. Cozzi, P. Protti e T. Ruaro - Analisi chimica moderni metodi strumentali Vol I, II e III - Zanichelli Bologna. - R. Ugo - Analisi chimica strumentale - Editrice Scientifica Guadagni, Milano. - Kenneth A. Connors - A textbook of pharmaceutical analysis - John Wiley & Sons - F. Savelli, O.Bruno - Analisi Chimico Farmaceutica - Piccin
Assessement methods and criteria
Individual laboratory training: attendance is assigned if 50% analyses are correct and it is valued from 1/30 to 6/30 points depending on the results of the analyses. These points add to the points resulting from the final written exam, whose top score is 24/30.
The final written exam has the following characteristics:
It includes (i) open questions (short answers are required in the prefixed number of lines reported in the exam format) and (ii) multiple choice questions dealing with all topics covered by the course by which the student should demonstrate his knowledge and understanding as well as his capacity to discuss the key concepts of each topic. The mark of the exam will be rapidly recoded and the student could accept or neglect this within the provided deadline. Before this deadline, a meeting will be scheduled during which the students can analyze and discuss the results of their exam.
During a solar year, there will be seven exams and the students can take consecutive exams without any constraining.