Functions

A.Y. 2019/2020
28
Max ECTS
344
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/09 BIO/10 BIO/16 FIS/07
Language
English
Learning objectives
The course focuses on the mechanisms of body functions from cell to system and is organised around the central theme of homeostasis, i.e. how the body maintains the constancy of the internal environment needed for all cells and organs to function properly despite continuously changing external and internal demands. In order to accomplish this goal the course integrates different disciplines including Physiology, Neuroanatomy, Biochemistry; Chemistry and Physics providing the students the view of the complex interplay between macro- and micro functional levels acting in life processes.
The course is designed to highlight the integration between the different functional systems of the human body, in perspective how the functions related to the part of the body just discussed contribute to the homeostasis. The course is designed in 2 blocks. The first block will focus on the structure and function of the nervous system o the endocrine system, the reproductive system, the muscle and on mechanisms adopted by the human body to maintain the homeostasis. The second block will address the structure and function, in body's homeostasis, of cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, digestive systems, liver, adipose tissue and on the biological response to stress. During the course, the message of the lectures will be reinforced and expanded by Practical Activities, Seminars, small group activities and training sessions.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the studets are expected to achieve knowledge on:
-the structure and the function of the nervous system and of the endocrine system.
-mechanisms undelying the functions of cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, digestive systems, liver, muscle, adipose tissue and on the biological response to stress.
-the dynamic integration of organs into apparatuses and the general functional control mechanisms in physiological conditions.
- the interaction and communication at the cellular, tissue, organ and system level in the organization of adaptive responses.
Course syllabus and organization

Unique edition

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
To take the Functions exam, students must have already taken all the exams of the first year (Fundamentals of Basic Sciences, Cells Molecules and Genes 1 and 2, Human Body).
Assessement methods and criteria
Student assessment is based on a combination of written and oral exams according to the following table:

SEMESTER PART TOPICS OUTCOME
1st A1 (written) Physics and Chemistry grade A1
B1(written) Anatomy and Physiology yes/no
C1 (oral) grade C1
2nd A2 (written) Physics and Chemistry grade A2
B2 (written) Biochemistry and Organ Physiology yes/no
C2 (oral) grade C2

A1 and B1, or A2 and B2 tests are administered simultaneously (the same for A2 and B2).
Threshold for A1 and A2 is 18 out of 30, threshold for B1 and B2 is 75%.
Students can take the written and the oral exams in the same session or in separate sessions. Once passed, the written tests are kept valid. However, only students who pass both A1 and B1 are allowed to take the C1 examination (the same for A2, B2, and C2).
No prescribed order between the 1st and 2nd semester's exams is required.
The final grade is the average of A1, C1, A2 and C2 weighted for the number of credits of each module (respectively 1.5; 10; 1.5 and 15). If the final grade is 30, than honours can be given with the consent of all the teachers.
In the C2 part of the exam, the student should be able to discuss skeletal muscle and locomotion, or the electrical behavior of the heart, dealt with in the first semester. Moreover, the student should be prepared to answer questions related to the following topics, that is a) the effects of orthosympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation on the tracheobronchial tree, b) carbon dioxide transfer through the alveolar capillary membrane, and c) reabsorption of gases from a corporeal cavity.
Physiology
Course syllabus
CONCEPT OF HOMEOSTASIS
· Lecture 1 - P Internal environment and the cell: maintenance of the homeostasis

NERVOUS SYSTEM: A WIRED SYSTEM
· Lecture 2 - Phy Bioelectricity
· Lecture 3 - B The ins and outs of ions in the nervous system
· Lecture 4 - P Electrical signalling in the excitable cells I
· Lecture 5 - C Electrochemistry in cell perspective (3 hours)
· Lecture 6 - B Neurotransmitters: special molecules in the nervous system
· Lecture 7 - P Electrical signalling in the excitable cells II
· Lecture 8 - P Neuronal target actions: neural integration; contraction; secretion
· Lecture 9 - P Electrical signalling: is it exclusive language of the nervous system?
· Lecture 10 - P Electrical signalling: the heart "funny" currents

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: A WIRELESS SYSTEM
· Lecture 11 - P Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis: master and commander
· Lecture 12 - P The Pituitary hormones: integrated metabolic effect

SOMATOSENSORY INTERACTION WITH THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
· Lecture 13 -A Sensory receptors, sensory modalities, and sensory pathways: man in energyland
· Lecture 14 - A Ascending pathways: to feel or not to feel?
· Lecture 15- A Thalamus and Somatosensory cortex: beam me up, Scotty
· Lecture 16 - P Coding sensory information: sensing the difference!
· Lecture 17 - P Coding sensory information: danger area: stay alert!

SENSING THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT:
· Lecture 18 - P The body's knowledge of itself: the seventh sense
· Lecture 19 - A Sensory pathways: representation of the main circuitry

THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SPECIAL SENSES
· Lecture 20 - Phy Waves
· Lecture 21 - Phy Sound waves
· Lecture 22 - Phy The physics of hearing
· Lecture 23 - A Special senses: hearing. If a tree falls into a forest, does it make a
· Lecture 24 - P Sounds familiar or not?
· Lecture 25 - Phy Light
· Lecture 26 - Phy The physics of vision
· Lecture 27 - A and P Special Senses: the eye. How the brain pictures the world (4h)
· Lecture 28 - A, B and P The eye and the brain (6h)
· Lecture 29 - A Pathways from the retina: the optic pathways. Man as a visual creature
· Lecture 30 - P What's wrong in this picture?
· Lecture 31 - A Special senses: position sense. Where is my head?
· Lecture 32 - P Spinning around jumping on the lift: thank you vestibular system! (3h)
· Lecture 33 - A Special senses: graphic representation of special sensory pathways
· Lecture 34 - P Look around
· Lecture 35 - A, B and P Perceiving the environment: the mechanisms of olfaction and taste (6h)

HUMAN MOTION: THE MUSCLE AND FORCE RECRUITMENT
· Lecture 36 - B Motors and energy in the skeletal muscle
· Lecture 37 - P Muscle mechanics: the force-length diagram during isometric contractions
· Lecture 38 - P Muscle mechanics: the force-velocity diagram during isotonic contractions
· Lecture 39 - P Moving eyes and building houses: different force requests

SIMPLE ACTION-INTERACTIONS REFLEX AND LOCOMOTION
· Lecture 40 - P The hierarchical motor system and the "independent" spinal cord. Reflexes

LOCOMOTION: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DRIVES A COMPLEX MACHINE
· Lecture 41 - P Let's go for a walk
· Lecture 42- P Biomechanics of locomotion: force platforms as ergometers
· Lecture 43- P From the spinal cord to the cortex

VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT: HUMAN HIGH SKILL:
· Lecture 44 - A Descending pathways: I like to move it, move it
· Lecture 45- A Descending pathways: graphic representation of the main circuitry
· Lecture 46 - P The human hand dexterity
· Lecture 47 - P From tool use to playing piano: the higher order motor functions
· Lecture 48 - P Principles of EEG recording: sleep and awake state; evoked
· Lecture 49 - A Cerebellum: coordination and planning. The smooth one
· Lecture 50 - P Cerebellum: the perfect timing
· Lecture 51 - A Basal ganglia: controlling, selecting, behaving, timing, planning The controversial one
· Lecture 52 - P Basal ganglia: direct, indirect or... hyperdirect?
· Lecture 53 - A Basal ganglia and cerebellum: graphic representation of the main circuitry
· Lecture 54 - P Growing dizzy and falling down!
· Lecture 55 - A Vascular supply to the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem. I depend on yO2u
· Lecture 56 - P Access Denied: the Brain barriers
· Lecture 57 - B The energetic side of the nervous system: glia and neurons in dialogue

BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSE/ACTIVITIES: THE ROLE OF HYPOTHALAMUS
· Lecture 58 - P From the autonomic actions to motivational states (3 hours)
· Lecture 59 - P Tinkering with our biological clocks

GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION
· Lecture 60 - P Drop the child: I'm adult
· Lecture 61 - P Reproduction: does it really contribute to homeostasis?

· Lecture 62 - P Seminar
· Lecture 63 - P Methodology of research in integrative physiology and assignment of paper for the journal club practical activity
· Lecture 64 - C Deepening chemical aspects of biological relevance (3 hours)

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
· Electrical nerve stimulation and Electroneurography
· Electromyography, tetanus, spinal reflexes, corticospinal conditioning, fatigue
· Sensory perception
· EEG: evoked potentials; event related potentials
· Journal club
·

2nd SEMESTER
· Lectures 1, 2 - Phy Nuclear physics and ionizing radiation

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
· Lecture 3 - Phy Nonviscous fluids
· Lectures 4, 5 - Phy Viscous fluids
· Lecture 6 - Phy Transport in fluids
· Lecture 7 - P Effects of gravity on the cardiovascular system
· Lecture 8 - B The dynamic composition and multifunctional role of blood plasma
· Lecture 9 - B Erythropoiesis, mature erythrocytes and iron homeostasis
· Lecture 10 - B Extracellular strengtheners and modulators of human tissues: the extracellular matrix and connective tissues
· Lecture 11 - B Sustaining and moving the human body: bone, cartilages and tendons
· Lecture 12 - P Smooth muscle
· Lecture 13 - B The vascular wall: a specialized, dynamic barrier
· Lecture 14 - B Hemostasis: protecting vascular integrity
· Lecture 15 - P Blood flow
· Lecture 16 - P Rheology of the blood and blood flow through elastic tubes
· Lecture 17 - P Electrocardiography
· Lecture 18 - P Cardiac cycle
· Lecture 19 - B The heart: energy for beating
· Lecture 20 - P Mechanics of the heart: PV loops
· Lecture 21- P Mechanics of the heart: Frank Starling mechanism
· Lecture 22 - P Arterial pressure
· Lecture 23 - P Measurement of cardiac output and physiological determinants of the shape of the cardiac function curve
· Lecture 24- P Microcirculation
· Lecture 25 - B The skin: our boundary and brain on the outside
· Lecture 26 - P Control of body temperature
· Lecture 27 - P Hemodynamics of regional circulatory beds
· Lecture 28 - P Mechanical coupling between the heart and the vessels: one pump model
· Lecture 29- P Mechanical coupling between the heart and the vessels: two pumps model. Cardiopulmonary integration
· Lecture 30 - P Interactive lesson
· Lecture 31 - P Should I stay or should I go? The Stress response.

GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM
· Lecture 32 - P Motility of the gastrointestinal system
· Lectures 33, 34 - B Secreting into opposite sides: the exocrine and endocrine properties of the gastro-intestinal system
· Lecture 35 - B The integrative role of the CNS in caloric homeostasis and food intake
· Seminar - B Eating for health
· Lecture 36 - B The liver I: the body's receiving and recycling central
· Lecture 37 - B The liver II: detoxifying and waste disposing properties
· Lecture 38 - B The endocrine pancreas
· Lecture 39 - B There is more in the adipose tissue than fat: the white and brown sides of adipocytes

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
· Lecture 40 - P Spirometric and plethysmographic measurements
· Lecture 41 - P Quasi-static properties of the respiratory system: pressure-volume curves
· Lecture 42 - B Special molecules in the airways
· Lecture 43 - P Quasi-static properties of the lungs and of the chest wall
· Lecture 44 - P Dynamics of the respiratory system. The Campbell diagram
· Lecture 45 - P Physiopathology of respiratory disease
· Lecture 46 - P Respiratory muscles
· Lecture 47 - P Distribution of ventilation and of perfusion in the lungs
· Lecture 48 - B The red blood cells: transport of oxygen (and more)
· Lecture 49 - P Gas transport in the blood
· Lecture 50 - P Gas exchange: the alveolar-capillary barrier
· Lecture 51 - P Gas exchange: the ideal lung
· Lecture 52 - P Gas exchange: the real lung
· Lecture 53 - P Control of breathing
· Lecture 54 - P Exercise

THE URINARY SYSTEM
· Lecture 55 - B Molecular strategies for glomerular filtration and tubular specialization
· Lecture 56 - P Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration
· Lecture 57 - P Renal Clearance
· Lecture 58 - P Proximal tubule, Henle's loop and distal tubule
· Lecture 59 - P Regulation of sodium and water balance
· Lecture 60 - P Potassium homeostasis
· Lecture 61 - B Calcium homeostasis.
· Lecture 62 - B Phosphorus homeostasis.
· Lecture 63 - C Understanding acid-base balance in the human body (3h)
· Lecture 64 - C The buffer systems of the body (3h)
· Lecture 65 - P Acid-base balance
· Lecture 66 - B There is more than excretion in the kidney.
· Lecture 67 - P Micturition
· Lecture 68 - P Hemogasanalysis and interpretation acid-base and respiratory disorders
· Lecture 69 - P Physiopathology of cardiac failure
· Lecture 70 - P Open lesson
· Lecture 71 - P Step 1 USMLE training - part 1
· Lecture 72 - P Step 1 USMLE training - part 2

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
· Cardiovascular research
· ECG
· Measurement of arterial blood pressure at rest and during exercise
· Pulmonary volumes and lung mechanics
· Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Dead space
· Mechanical ventilation
· Arterial blood gases analysis and acid-base disorders: clinical cases
· 2 Case studies of biochemistry
· 4 PBL (2 physiology, 2 biochemistry)
Teaching methods
· Lectures
· Seminars
Bibliography
PHYSIOLOGY
· D Purves, GJ Augustine, D Fitzpatric, WC Hall, AS LaMantia, JO McNamara, LE White, NEUROSCIENCE (5th ed) Sinauer 2012.
· E Kandel, T Jessell, J Schwartz, S Siegelbaum, AJ Hudspeth, PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL SCIENCE (5th ed) McGraw Hill 2012.
· JB West, AM Luks WEST'S RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY THE ESSENTIALS (10th ed) Wolters Kluwer 2015.
· D Eaton, J Pooler VANDER'S RENAL PHYSIOLOGY (8th ed) McGraw Hill 2013.
· RE Klabunde CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY CONCEPTS (2nd ed) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2012.
· JE Hall GUYTON AND HALL TEXTBOOK OF MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY (13th ed) Saunders 2015
BIOCHEMISTRY
· Devlin T.M. Textbook of biochemistry with clinical correlations. 7th ed. revised, 2019.
· Lieberman M. and Marks A. "Marks' basic medical biochemistry: a clinical approach" 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018.
· Baynes J., Dominiczak M.H. Medical biochemistry. 5th edn, 2018, Elsevier.
NEUROANATOMY
· Beckstead RM. A survey of medical neuroscience. Springer-Verlag, 1995.
· Brodal P. The Central Nervous System. Oxford University Press; 5th ed, 2016.
· Burt AM. Textbook of Neuroanatomy. Saunders, 1st ed, 1993.
· Chusid JG. Correlative Neuroanatomy & Functional Neurology. Appleton & Lange, 19th ed, 1986.
· Haines DE. Neuroanatomy in Clinical Context: An Atlas of Structures, Sections, Systems, and Syndromes. Wolters Kluver, 9th ed, 2014.
· Parent A. Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 9th ed, 1996.
PHYSICS
· Alan Giambattista and Betty Richardson and Robert Richardson, Physics, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Education, 2016.
Biochemistry
Course syllabus
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Physiology.
Teaching methods
· Lectures
· Seminars
Bibliography
PHYSIOLOGY
· D Purves, GJ Augustine, D Fitzpatric, WC Hall, AS LaMantia, JO McNamara, LE White, NEUROSCIENCE (5th ed) Sinauer 2012.
· E Kandel, T Jessell, J Schwartz, S Siegelbaum, AJ Hudspeth, PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL SCIENCE (5th ed) McGraw Hill 2012.
· JB West, AM Luks WEST'S RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY THE ESSENTIALS (10th ed) Wolters Kluwer 2015.
· D Eaton, J Pooler VANDER'S RENAL PHYSIOLOGY (8th ed) McGraw Hill 2013.
· RE Klabunde CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY CONCEPTS (2nd ed) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2012.
· JE Hall GUYTON AND HALL TEXTBOOK OF MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY (13th ed) Saunders 2015
BIOCHEMISTRY
· Devlin T.M. Textbook of biochemistry with clinical correlations. 7th ed. revised, 2019.
· Lieberman M. and Marks A. "Marks' basic medical biochemistry: a clinical approach" 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018.
· Baynes J., Dominiczak M.H. Medical biochemistry. 5th edn, 2018, Elsevier.
NEUROANATOMY
· Beckstead RM. A survey of medical neuroscience. Springer-Verlag, 1995.
· Brodal P. The Central Nervous System. Oxford University Press; 5th ed, 2016.
· Burt AM. Textbook of Neuroanatomy. Saunders, 1st ed, 1993.
· Chusid JG. Correlative Neuroanatomy & Functional Neurology. Appleton & Lange, 19th ed, 1986.
· Haines DE. Neuroanatomy in Clinical Context: An Atlas of Structures, Sections, Systems, and Syndromes. Wolters Kluver, 9th ed, 2014.
· Parent A. Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 9th ed, 1996.
PHYSICS
· Alan Giambattista and Betty Richardson and Robert Richardson, Physics, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Education, 2016.
Chemistry and introductory biochemistry
Course syllabus
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Physiology.
Teaching methods
· Lectures
· Seminars
Bibliography
PHYSIOLOGY
· D Purves, GJ Augustine, D Fitzpatric, WC Hall, AS LaMantia, JO McNamara, LE White, NEUROSCIENCE (5th ed) Sinauer 2012.
· E Kandel, T Jessell, J Schwartz, S Siegelbaum, AJ Hudspeth, PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL SCIENCE (5th ed) McGraw Hill 2012.
· JB West, AM Luks WEST'S RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY THE ESSENTIALS (10th ed) Wolters Kluwer 2015.
· D Eaton, J Pooler VANDER'S RENAL PHYSIOLOGY (8th ed) McGraw Hill 2013.
· RE Klabunde CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY CONCEPTS (2nd ed) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2012.
· JE Hall GUYTON AND HALL TEXTBOOK OF MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY (13th ed) Saunders 2015
BIOCHEMISTRY
· Devlin T.M. Textbook of biochemistry with clinical correlations. 7th ed. revised, 2019.
· Lieberman M. and Marks A. "Marks' basic medical biochemistry: a clinical approach" 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018.
· Baynes J., Dominiczak M.H. Medical biochemistry. 5th edn, 2018, Elsevier.
NEUROANATOMY
· Beckstead RM. A survey of medical neuroscience. Springer-Verlag, 1995.
· Brodal P. The Central Nervous System. Oxford University Press; 5th ed, 2016.
· Burt AM. Textbook of Neuroanatomy. Saunders, 1st ed, 1993.
· Chusid JG. Correlative Neuroanatomy & Functional Neurology. Appleton & Lange, 19th ed, 1986.
· Haines DE. Neuroanatomy in Clinical Context: An Atlas of Structures, Sections, Systems, and Syndromes. Wolters Kluver, 9th ed, 2014.
· Parent A. Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 9th ed, 1996.
PHYSICS
· Alan Giambattista and Betty Richardson and Robert Richardson, Physics, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Education, 2016.
Anatomy
Course syllabus
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Physiology.
Teaching methods
· Lectures
· Seminars
Bibliography
PHYSIOLOGY
· D Purves, GJ Augustine, D Fitzpatric, WC Hall, AS LaMantia, JO McNamara, LE White, NEUROSCIENCE (5th ed) Sinauer 2012.
· E Kandel, T Jessell, J Schwartz, S Siegelbaum, AJ Hudspeth, PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL SCIENCE (5th ed) McGraw Hill 2012.
· JB West, AM Luks WEST'S RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY THE ESSENTIALS (10th ed) Wolters Kluwer 2015.
· D Eaton, J Pooler VANDER'S RENAL PHYSIOLOGY (8th ed) McGraw Hill 2013.
· RE Klabunde CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY CONCEPTS (2nd ed) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2012.
· JE Hall GUYTON AND HALL TEXTBOOK OF MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY (13th ed) Saunders 2015
BIOCHEMISTRY
· Devlin T.M. Textbook of biochemistry with clinical correlations. 7th ed. revised, 2019.
· Lieberman M. and Marks A. "Marks' basic medical biochemistry: a clinical approach" 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018.
· Baynes J., Dominiczak M.H. Medical biochemistry. 5th edn, 2018, Elsevier.
NEUROANATOMY
· Beckstead RM. A survey of medical neuroscience. Springer-Verlag, 1995.
· Brodal P. The Central Nervous System. Oxford University Press; 5th ed, 2016.
· Burt AM. Textbook of Neuroanatomy. Saunders, 1st ed, 1993.
· Chusid JG. Correlative Neuroanatomy & Functional Neurology. Appleton & Lange, 19th ed, 1986.
· Haines DE. Neuroanatomy in Clinical Context: An Atlas of Structures, Sections, Systems, and Syndromes. Wolters Kluver, 9th ed, 2014.
· Parent A. Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 9th ed, 1996.
PHYSICS
· Alan Giambattista and Betty Richardson and Robert Richardson, Physics, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Education, 2016.
Medical physics
Course syllabus
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Physiology.
Teaching methods
· Lectures
· Seminars
Bibliography
PHYSIOLOGY
· D Purves, GJ Augustine, D Fitzpatric, WC Hall, AS LaMantia, JO McNamara, LE White, NEUROSCIENCE (5th ed) Sinauer 2012.
· E Kandel, T Jessell, J Schwartz, S Siegelbaum, AJ Hudspeth, PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL SCIENCE (5th ed) McGraw Hill 2012.
· JB West, AM Luks WEST'S RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY THE ESSENTIALS (10th ed) Wolters Kluwer 2015.
· D Eaton, J Pooler VANDER'S RENAL PHYSIOLOGY (8th ed) McGraw Hill 2013.
· RE Klabunde CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY CONCEPTS (2nd ed) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2012.
· JE Hall GUYTON AND HALL TEXTBOOK OF MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY (13th ed) Saunders 2015
BIOCHEMISTRY
· Devlin T.M. Textbook of biochemistry with clinical correlations. 7th ed. revised, 2019.
· Lieberman M. and Marks A. "Marks' basic medical biochemistry: a clinical approach" 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018.
· Baynes J., Dominiczak M.H. Medical biochemistry. 5th edn, 2018, Elsevier.
NEUROANATOMY
· Beckstead RM. A survey of medical neuroscience. Springer-Verlag, 1995.
· Brodal P. The Central Nervous System. Oxford University Press; 5th ed, 2016.
· Burt AM. Textbook of Neuroanatomy. Saunders, 1st ed, 1993.
· Chusid JG. Correlative Neuroanatomy & Functional Neurology. Appleton & Lange, 19th ed, 1986.
· Haines DE. Neuroanatomy in Clinical Context: An Atlas of Structures, Sections, Systems, and Syndromes. Wolters Kluver, 9th ed, 2014.
· Parent A. Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 9th ed, 1996.
PHYSICS
· Alan Giambattista and Betty Richardson and Robert Richardson, Physics, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Education, 2016.
Anatomy
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 36 hours
Biochemistry
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 6
Lessons: 60 hours
Problem Based Learning: 12 hours
Chemistry and introductory biochemistry
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 12 hours
Medical physics
FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 2
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Cerbino Roberto
Physiology
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 16
Practicals: 32 hours
Lessons: 156 hours
Problem Based Learning: 12 hours
Shifts:
Group 1
Professor: Pecchiari Matteo Maria
Group 2
Professor: Fornia Luca
Professor(s)
Reception:
by prior appointment, arranged by e-mail
Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Medico-Chirurgica e dei Trapianti, sezione di Fisiologia, via L. Mangiagalli 32