General Biochemistry

A.Y. 2019/2020
6
Max ECTS
48
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/10
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course provides the required terminology and fundamental principles for the study of the metabolic processes that will be developed in the course of the third year Metabolic and Functional Biochemistry. In particular, the aim of the course of General Biochemistry is to lead the student through a path that allows him to acquire the knowledge related to:
- structure, chemical-physical properties, and functions of the main "simple" organic biomolecules (amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleotides) of specific relevance for the human being;
- chemical-physical bases that promote the assembly of these "simple" organic biomolecules to form macromolecules and functional supramolecular complexes (proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, biological membranes) so as to understand the structure-function relationship;
- bioenergetics in the human being: mechanisms for energy extraction, conservation and utilization;
- kinetics of chemical reactions, functions and regulation of enzymes.
The course also provides for the basic principles related to the biochemistry of informational macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) with notions concerning their structure, properties, metabolism and cellular functions.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course of General Biochemistry, the student will have acquired the terminology and will have the knowledge of the structure, chemical-physical properties, and functions of the main organic biomolecules of specific relevance for the human being. The student will have also learned the principles of the thermodynamic and kinetic control of the chemical reactions occurring in human cells, and the basic principles of the transmission of information contained in the genome.
Course syllabus and organization

Linea AL

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
Course syllabus
Cells, biomolecules, water.
Amino Acids
-Structure, properties and classification. Peptide bond.
Proteins
-Structure and function.
-Globular Proteins: Myoglobin; Haemoglobin; Albumin; Globulins.
-Fibrous Proteins: Collagen; Elastin; Keratins;
-Glycoproteins and Proteoglycans.
Carbohydrates
-Monosaccharides (aldoses and ketoses), glycosidic bond, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides.
Lipids
-Fatty Acids, triacylglycerols, phosphoacylglycerols, sphingolipids, glycolipids, cholesterol.
-Properties of lipid aggregates: micelles, liposomes.
Thermodynamic principles
-Change of free energy in standard conditions.
-Phosphate and thioester compounds with high-energy bonds.
-ATP hydrolysis and coupling of exoergonic and endoergonic processes.
Enzymes
-Enzymatic catalysis.
-Kinetic theory of reaction.
-Inhibition of enzyme activity: reversible inhibition (competitive, noncompetitive,
incompetitive, by product, feed-back); irreversible inhibition.
-Regulation of enzyme activity.
-Zymogens, isoenzymes, constitutive and inducible enzymes.
-Enzymatic classes and major subclasses.
Membranes
-Fluid mosaic model.
-Transport mechanisms (simple and facilitated diffusions; active transport; channel proteins; Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca++ATPase pumps).
Bioenergetics
-Mitochondria.
-Respiratory chain (components and sequential processing; control mechanisms; inhibitors and uncouplers).
-Oxidative phosphorylation.
-Mitochondrial carriers.
Nucleic Acids
-DNA and RNA (m-, r-, t-RNA) structure
-DNA mutation and repair.
-Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; posttranscriptional modifications of RNA (3'-poly-A- tail; 5'-7-methylguanosine cup; splicing).
Protein synthesis and degradation
-Aminoacid activation and aminoacyl-tRNA complex formation.
-Translation mechanism and inhibitors.
-Posttranslational modifications and delivery of proteins.
-Lysosomal degradation and ubiquitin proteasome system
Prerequisites for admission
The course is for students who have acquired knowledge of inorganic general chemistry and general biology.
Teaching methods
Frontal lectures (6 credits)
Teaching Resources
Iconographic material of the lessons on the site https://ariel.unimi.it/
- D.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox, "I Principi di Biochimica di Lehninger", Zanichelli, 7°ed., 2018
- N. Siliprandi, G. Tettamanti, "Biochimica Applicata Medica", Piccin, 5°ed., 2018
- T.M.Devlin, "Biochimica con aspetti clinico-farmaceutici", EdiSES, 5° ed., 2013
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam consists of an oral test which includes a question on each of the following three topics:
- chemical structure of biomolecules;
- classification, kinetics and regulation of enzymes;
- informational macromolecules;
plus further questions on two other topics included in the program.
The exam is considered passed when the student demonstrates knowledge of the required topics.
The criterion for assigning the mark is established on the basis of the level of deepening demonstrated of one's knowledge and on the student's ability to answer questions with appropriate terminology.
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 6
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Rizzo Angela Maria

Linea MZ

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
Course syllabus
Elements, biomolecules (functional groups and isomery) and chemical bonds in cell organization and biological phenomena

Water, acids and bases, pH and buffer systems in the human body

Amino Acids
Structure, classification, chemical properties and functions. Peptide bond.

Proteins
Structure (Iaria, IIaria, IIIaria and IVaria), properties and functions. Simple and complex proteins. Structure and functions of:
- fibrous proteins: alpha-keratins, collagen, elastin; biosynthesis of collagen;
- globular proteins: pre-albumin, albumin, immunoglobulins, myoglobin and hemoglobin.

Carbohydrates
Structure and functions of:
- monosaccharides: aldoses and ketoses, open and cyclic structure, substituted sugars and saccharidic derivatives (aminozuccheri, uronic acids, polyalcohols, desoxizucars, sialic acids); glycosidic bond;
- disaccharides: maltose, isomaltose, lactose, saccharose, cellobiose;
- oligosaccharides: glycoproteins (O-linked and N-linked);
- homopolysaccharides: glycogen, starch, cellulose;
- heteropolysaccharides: glycosaminoglycans (main classes) and proteoglycans.

Lipids
Structure and functions of:
- saturated and unsaturated fatty acids: nomenclature and numbering);
- triglycerides, glycerolphospholipids, sphingolfospholipids, glycosphingolipids and cholesterol;
- lipid aggregates: micelles, liposomes and plasma lipoproteins.

Biological membranes
Composition, structure and properties (asymmetry, fluidity and dynamism). Membrane proteins: structure and functions. Transport mechanisms: simple and facilitated diffusion, active transport, channel proteins, ionophores.

Enzymes
Properties and structural features. Isozymes. Constitutive and inducible enzymes.
Enzymatic kinetics: Michaelis-Menten, Vmax and Km equation; graph of reciprocal doubles.
Regulation of enzyme activity: influence of pH and temperature; inhibition mechanisms (reversible (competitive, non-competitive, incompetent) and irreversible inhibitors; product inhibition and feed-back inhibition; covalent modifications (binding of phosphoric groups, etc.); proteolytic cleavage; association-dissociation.
Allosteric enzymes.
Nomenclature and classification of enzymes with examples for each class.
Cofactors and coenzymes: structure and functions of vitamin B3 (niacin) and of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) and of the coenzymes derived [NAD (P), FMN, FAD].

Principles of bioenergetics, synthesis of ATP and its functions
Free energy variation (DG), equilibrium constant, exergonic and endergonic reactions.
Chemical bases of the free energy variation associated with ATP hydrolysis.
ATP functions: coupled reactions and group transfers.
Phosphorylated compounds with high energy content.
Oxidative phosphorylation: respiratory chain and ATP synthase; control, inhibitors and decouplers.

Biochemistry of informational macromolecules
- Nucleotides and nucleic acids: structure and chemical properties of nitrogenous bases, nucleotides and polynucleotide chains; structure and functions of DNA and RNA; gene concept.
- Transcription: structure and properties of eukaryotic RNA polymerases; molecular mechanism of the process; control of transcriptional activity in eukaryotic cells (chemical modifications of histones, chromatin remodeling complexes, DNA methylation, enhancers, silencers, activators and repressors).
- Processing and maturation of pre-mRNAs in eukaryotic cells: mechanism and functions of capping in 5 ', of polyadenylation in 3', of splicing (constitutive and alternative) and of RNA editing.
- Translation: structure and functions of ribosomes and tRNAs, aminoacylation reaction, genetic code, protein synthesis mechanism, folding and post-translational modifications.
- Degradation of mRNA and proteins (lysosomal and ubiquitin-dependent).
- Regulatory RNA: microRNAs.
Prerequisites for admission
The course is for students who have acquired knowledge of inorganic general chemistry and general biology.
Teaching methods
Frontal lectures (6 credits)
Teaching Resources
Iconographic material of the lessons on the site https://ariel.unimi.it/

- D.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox, "I Principi di Biochimica di Lehninger", Zanichelli, 7°ed., 2018
- N. Siliprandi, G. Tettamanti, "Biochimica Applicata Medica", Piccin, 5°ed., 2018
- T.M.Devlin, "Biochimica con aspetti clinico-farmaceutici", EdiSES, 5° ed., 2013
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam consists of an oral test which includes a question on each of the following three topics:
- chemical structure of biomolecules;
- classification, kinetics and regulation of enzymes;
- informational macromolecules;
plus further questions on two other topics included in the program.
The exam is considered passed when the student demonstrates knowledge of the required topics.
The criterion for assigning the mark is established on the basis of the level of deepening demonstrated of one's knowledge and on the student's ability to answer questions with appropriate terminology.
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 6
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Colombo Irma