General Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology

A.Y. 2019/2020
14
Max ECTS
136
Overall hours
SSD
VET/03 VET/05
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Veterinary microbiology deals with the study and characerization of potentially pathogenic microorganisms (non conventional agents, viruses, bacteria, etc). Immunology deals with basic structures and functions of innate and acquired immunity against microorganisms in different conditions (e.g. young, adult, old, stressed animal) and with methods to potentiate (e.g. vaccinations) and diagnose them (immunodiagnostics).
General pathology deals with the study of pathogenic mechanisms responsible of the pathologic changes detectable in domestic and wild animals. These changes include cell and tissue damage (general pathology), functional changews of organs (pathophysiology) or diseases associated with disturbances of the immune system (immunopathology)
The course include lectures, seminars and practicals. In turn these latter include practical sessions focused on microbiology (bacterial cultures etc), immunology, hematology, run either in the diagnostic lab of the department or in the microscope room.
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge and understandings: students must demonstrate to know the structure and features of microorganisms affecting animals, the functions of the immune system and the etiopathogenesis of the main pathological and pathophysiological changes
Applying knowledge and understanding: students must demonstrate to establish logical lings between the different topics and to correlate to each other the information provided by the different modules of the course
Making judgements: students must demonstrate problem solving abilities in a critical manner
Communication: students must be able to properly communicate, using appropriate terminology
Learning skills: students must demonstrate to be able to autonomously improve their own knowledge of new problems related to the different modules of the course.
Course syllabus and organization

Unique edition

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
Prerequisites for admission
Attendance to lectures and practicals, Passing the exams of propedeutical courses
Assessment methods and Criteria
EXAMS
MODULE OF MICROBIOLOGY: Written and oral exam

MODULE OF IMMUNOLOGY:
1) written test:
The test is composed by
- 6 MCQs: each correct answer account for 2.5 points (maximum score: 15 points)
- 3 MCQs: each correct answer account for 4 points (maximum score: 12 points)
No points are subtracted in the case of wrong answers
The total score for the written part is 27 points
2) short laboratory report:
Students must prepare a short report dealing with the 3 sessions of practical sessions run in the laboratory and with links to the topics presented in the classroom. Maximum score: 3 points
For students that attended the course in previous years (when the short laboratory report was not requested) one additional short assay regarding immunodiagnostics is added to the written test (max score for this additional question: 3 points)
The total score of the written test and of the short laboratory report is 30/30
Either the MCQs or the short laboratory report may account for an additional score ("+") that may be used to round the vote in the case of decimals, or to assign the final score of 30/30 cum laude
3) oral exam:
The oral exam is focused on the correction of the written test and on additional oral questions
The oral exam is mandatory for students totalizing less than 24/30 in the written part of the exam
Students that score at least 24/30 in the written test may ask to perform a third oral part of the exam to further increase their total score (maximum score for the oral exam: 3 points)

MODULES OF GENERAL PATHOLOGY, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY
1) written test with 16 questions: 8MCQs and 8 open, the latter with a "list format" (e.g. list 3 changes consistent with apoptosis)
- For each correct MCQ and for each correct answer of the list: 1 point
Total score of the written test: 32 points (16 for general pathology; 12 for pathophysiology, 4 for immunopathology)
- Passing mark: 18 points
- The passing mark may vary according to the hang off method (the passing threshold is recalculated based on the ratio between the mean score of passing student and the expected max total score, e.g. max score = 32, threshold 18; mean score = 27, new threshold: 27/32=x/18 x= 15)
Candidates that passed the written exam but are not satisfied of the score may ask to add an oral exam by sending an e-mail to the teacher in the day of publication o results on the Ariel website. The schedule of oral exams will be communicated within the next day
the oral exam for candidates that want to modify the score of the written exam is composed by three questions (1 gen path; 1 pathophysiol; 1 immunopathol). In this case the final score will be calculated based on the mean of the two scores (written and oral exam)

FINAL SCORE OF THE WHOLE COURSE
The final score corresponds to the weighted mean of the modules as follows:
- microbiology = 3 credits, immunology = 3 credits; general pathology, immunopathology and pathophysiology = 8 credits.
- The total score would be: (vote of microbiology x 3 + vote of immunology x 3, vote of general pathology, immunopathology and pathophysiology x 8) /14
Patologia generale veterinaria
Course syllabus
Introduction (introductory concepts, i.e. homeostasis and disease) 1 hour
General etiology (Radiations, burns; chemical causes of diseases; infectious agents; genetic-hereditary diseases) 4 hours
Cell and tissue death (Necrosis Apoptosis) 2 hours
Adaptive mechanisms (Hypertrophy, Hypotrophy, Metaplasia) 2 hours
Cellular degeneration (Cell swelling, Hydropic degeneration, Vacuolar degeneration, Mucous degeneration, Fatty degeneration, Cholesterinosis - atheroma) 4 ore
Extracellular degeneration (Jaline, fibrinoid, mucous, amyloid) 3 hours
Acute inflammation (Inflammatory vascular changes, Cell activation, diapedesis and phagocytosis, chemical mediators, exudates, the acute phase reaction) 6 hours
Chronic inflammation (interstitial inflammation, granuloma) 2 hours
Tissue repair (Mechanisms of tissue repair) 2 hours
Tumours (Terminology, neoplastic atypia, Oncogenesis and molecular oncogenesis phases of neoplastic development, metastases, cachexia and paraneoplastic syndromes, immunity against tumors) 6 hours
Teaching methods
Lectures with projected slides cntaining text, diagrams or images and videos. During lectures specific aspects will be exploited through interactive discussions and at the end of any group of topics a web based self evaluation test will be run
Teaching Resources
Slides or CD-ROM or "on-line" version : http://ariel.ctu.unimi.it

McGAVIN e ZACHARY - Patologia Generale Veterinaria - Elsevier Masson 2008

PONTIERI - Patologia Generale -1 e 2 (2 per fisiopatologia) - Piccin. Ultima edizione

ROBBINS - Pathologic basis of the disease - 6° (2000)/7° (2004) ed. Saunders
Fisiopatologia e immunopatologia
Course syllabus
Lectures
Pathophysiology of blood cells, fluids and proteins (Volemia, anemia, polycythemia, Leucopaenia, leucocytosis, Thromboctytopenia, changes of plasma protein) 5 hours
Pathophysiology of the endocrine system (Hyper- and hypofunction of hypophysis, thyroid, adrenal glands, including stress, diabetes) 5 hours
Pathophysiology of metabolism (Bovine ketosis, neonatal hypoglycemia of swine, milk fever) 4 hours
Disturbi di circolo (Hyperemia, Edema, Ischemia, Infarct, Thrombosis, Embolizaton, Shock) 2 hours
Pathophysiology of thermoregulation (febrile and non febrile hyperthermia) 1 hour
Jaundice. 1 hour
Organ function tests (Principles of interpretation, tests for liver functions) 1 hour
Immunopathology (Hypersensitivity reactions (Type I, II, III, IV), Autoimmune diseases, Immunodeficiencies 5 hours
Practicals
Laboratory methods (seminar in the classroom to the whole studentship) 2 hours
Preanalytical and analytical errors (seminar in the classroom to the whole studentship) 2 hours
Handling and analysis of blood (max 20 students per group in the laboratory) Cell counts, execution of blood smears, Centrifugation and biochemical analysis using automated methods 2 hours
Reading of blood smears (max 30 student per group with individual microscopes) Approach to the blood smear at the microscope, execution of the differential leukocyte count, identification of the main pathological changes of RBC, WBC, and platelets 8 hours
Principles of test interpretation and self-evaluation test 2 hours
Teaching methods
Lectures with projected slides cntaining text, diagrams or images and videos. During lectures specific aspects will be exploited through interactive discussions and at the end of any group of topics a web based self evaluation test will be run.
Practicals will be run as specified at the end of the programme in teaching labs (microscopy and biological lab) within the teaching buildings
Teaching Resources
Slides or CD-ROM or "on-line" version : http://ariel.ctu.unimi.it

PONTIERI - Patologia Generale -1 e 2 (2 per fisiopatologia) - Piccin. Ultima edizione

TIZARD - Veterinary Immunolgy - An Introduction, 6th ed. Saunders

For specific interests (hematology and andocrine diseases)

WEISS e WARDROP- Schalm's Veterinary Hematology - 6° ed. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

KANEKO - Clinical Biochemistry of domestic animals - 6° ed.

STOCKHAM & SCOTT - Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology - 2° ed.

PALTRINIERI GIORDANO, BERTAZZOLO - Patologia Clinica del Cane e del gatto. Approccio pratico alla diagnostica di laboratorio
Microbiologia veterinaria
Course syllabus
Bacteriology:
-Basic information on microorganisms; Morphology, structure and function of bacterial cell wall and bacterial cellular structures
-Bacterial cultures
-Genetic of Bacteria,
-Innovative biotectnology: genetic modified organisms
-Bacterial pathogens
-Diagnostic and clinical bacteriology
-Classification of bacteria
-physical and chemical agents to control microorganisms
Virology
-General aspects, characteristics of the virus
-virus/host interactions
-Bacteriophages
-Priones
-Diagnostic virology
-Classification of viruses
-Virus and tumors
-Antibiotics, chemoterapeutics and antiviral therapy
Practical exercitations
Teaching methods
Lectures and practicals as specified in the programme
Teaching Resources
Poli G., Dall'Ara P., Martino P.A., Rosati S. (2017): Microbiologia e immunologia veterinaria. 3a ed., EDRA, Milano.

Martin J Blaser (2016) Che fine hanno fatto i nostri microbi ed. ABOCA ISBN 978-88-98881-21-5
Immunologia veterinaria
Course syllabus
Lectures
Introduction to the course, presentation of the lecturer, illustration of how the exam is conducted: 1 hour
Antigens and immunogens:, characteristics, features, practical examples: 1 hour
Non-specific immune defenses: cells and molecules, PAMP and DAMP recognition by TLR, practical examples: 2 hours
Specific immune defenses: primary and secondary lymphoid organs, B and T lymphocytes (features, markers, BCR and TCR receptors, functions), memory cells; humoral immunity and antibodies (structure, classes, production, mechanisms of action); cell-mediated immunity and cytotoxicity (MHC, cytokines and cellular interactions, different T lymphocytes at work); local immunity to the surfaces (MALT, immunoexclusion and immunoelimination, immunity of gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, genito-urinary tract, skin, mammary gland, eye): 8 hours
Immune defenses in veterinary practice: naturally and artificially acquired passive immunity, neonatal immunology, immunology in the elderly, immunity and stress, how pathogens escape immune defenses: 4 hours
Hints of immunopathology: type I, II, III and IV hypersensitivity, autoimmune diseases: 2 hours

Practicals
Immunodiagnostics: what is and what is it for, antibody titer, acute and convalescent serum specimens, main immunodiagnostics techniques (precipitation, agglutination, techniques with marked reagents), practical examples (seminar in the classroom to the whole studentship): 8 hours
Dilutions (theory and practice) (max 20 students per group in the laboratory): 2 hours
ELISA technique (max 20 students per group in the laboratory): 2 hours
In-clinics test (max 20 students per group in the laboratory): 2 hours
Approach to vaccine practice: classification and types of vaccines, vaccine registration, response to vaccination, herd immunity, factors influencing vaccine practice (seminar in the classroom to the whole studentship): 2 hours
Teaching methods
Lectures and practicals as specified in the programme
Teaching Resources
Poli G., Dall'Ara P., Martino P.A., Rosati S. (2017): Microbiologia e immunologia veterinaria. 3a ed., EDRA, Milano.

Slides availble on the Ariel website
Fisiopatologia e immunopatologia
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 4
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 24 hours
Shifts:
Turno 1 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Paltrinieri Saverio
Turno 2 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Paltrinieri Saverio
Turno 3 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Paltrinieri Saverio
Turno 4 per tutti gli studenti
Professor: Paltrinieri Saverio
Turno 5 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Paltrinieri Saverio
Turno 6 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Paltrinieri Saverio
Turno 7 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Paltrinieri Saverio
Turno 8 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Paltrinieri Saverio
Immunologia veterinaria
VET/05 - INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS - University credits: 3
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 16 hours
Shifts:
Turno 1 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Dall'Ara Paola Emanuela
Turno 2 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Dall'Ara Paola Emanuela
Turno 3 per tutti gli studenti
Professor: Dall'Ara Paola Emanuela
Turno 4 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Dall'Ara Paola Emanuela
Turno 5 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Dall'Ara Paola Emanuela
Turno 6 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Dall'Ara Paola Emanuela
Turno 7 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Dall'Ara Paola Emanuela
Microbiologia veterinaria
VET/05 - INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS - University credits: 3
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Bonizzi Luigi
Shifts:
Professor: Bonizzi Luigi
Turno 1 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Bonizzi Luigi
Turno 2 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Bonizzi Luigi
Turno 3 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Bonizzi Luigi
Turno 4 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Bonizzi Luigi
Turno per tutti gli studenti
Professor: Bonizzi Luigi
Patologia generale veterinaria
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 32 hours