Human anatomy and physiology

A.Y. 2019/2020
8
Max ECTS
120
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/09 BIO/16
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Knowledge of the general organization of the human body, with the description of the main features in relation to the spatial reference axis.
Knowledge of the morphological features of systems, organs, and tissues of the human body, together with the main morphofunctional correlations.
Knowledge of the functional features of the different organs of the human body, together with their dynamic integration within systems and their general control mechanisms.
Knowledge of the functional parameters in healthy subjects.
Knowledge of the basic principles of feeding and of energetic metabolism.
Expected learning outcomes
Students will be able in defining the general organization of the healthy human body
Students will be able in describing the main features of the human body in relation to the spatial reference axis
Students will know the morphological features of systems, organs, and tissues of the human body
Students will explain the main morphofunctional correlations of systems, organs, and tissues of the healthy human body
Students will be able to describe functional features of organs, their dynamical integration into apparatus
Students will be able to describe functional parameters in healthy human state
Students will be able to describe basic nutritional principles and metabolic regulation
Students will be able to describe main general control systems of human body.
Course syllabus and organization

Sezione: Busto Arsizio

Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professor: Piperno Francesca Maria Luisa
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professor: Inzigneri Giovanna

Sezione: Cernusco

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professor: Giunta Paolo
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours

Sezione: Crema

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professor: Pergola Loreta
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professor: Grassini Angelo

Sezione: Don Gnocchi

Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours

Sezione: Fatebenefratelli

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours

Sezione: IEO

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professor: Brambilla Dario

Sezione: Magenta

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professor: Brambilla Dario

Sezione: Niguarda

Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professors: Cappella Annalisa, Gibelli Daniele Maria, Turci Michela Cristina
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours

Sezione: Policlinico

Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours

Sezione: Rho

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professor: Vismara Alessandro

Sezione: Sacco

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours

Sezione: San Carlo

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professor: Brambilla Dario

Sezione: San Donato

Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours

Sezione: San Giuseppe

Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professor: Incarbone Matteo
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professor: Gussoni Maristella

Sezione: San Paolo

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professor: Cristina Maurizio
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professor: Masu Anna Maria

Sezione: Tumori

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific prerequisites other than those required for admission to the degree course.
Assessement methods and criteria
The written test includes closed and / or open-ended questions.
The evaluation of the written barrier test DOES NOT give rise to a mark, but only to admission to the oral test.
The oral exam includes questions the assessment of which relates to the following parameters: content, logic, language properties.
The evaluation of the oral test is out of thirty.
Fisiologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to Physiology and cell physiology
Homeostasis and homeostatic control systems. The plasma membrane properties. Membrane transport of water and substances. Properties of excitable cells, ionic channels, membrane potential, generation and conduction of action potentials

Neurophysiology and muscular physiology
Electrical and chemical synapses. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Skeleton muscle: neuromuscular junction, striated muscle fibers. Molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle mechanics. Length/tension and force/velocity relationships and muscular work. Recruitment order of motor units. Mechanical and electrical properties of the smooth muscle.
Central Nervous System: sensory receptors, transduction and central sensorial information transmission. Somatosensory system, proprioceptors and exteroceptors. Pain and central mechanisms controlling pain. Special senses: hearing, vision, position sense and taste. Anatomo-fuctional organization of motor system, alpha and gamma motor neurons, organization of spinal interneurons. Spinal reflexes. Control of Voluntary movement. Autonomic nervous system.

Cardiovascular System
Functional meaning of cardiovascular system. Cardiac muscle and blood vessel properties. Electrical activity of the heart: pacemaker, conductive and contractile cardiac cells. Electrocardiography: 1st, 2nd, 3rd and precordial leads. The heart as a pump: cardiac functions, cardiac cycle mechanical events, pressure-volume relationship of left ventricle. Cardiac tones. Cardiac output. Cardiac work. Blood pressure.
Hemodynamics: large and small circulation. Flow, velocity, resistance and pressure of the blood. Laminar and turbulent flow. Control of cardiac output and blood pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Blood composition. Hemostasis

Respiratory System
Functional meaning of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles Pressure variations, pulmonary flow and volumes during breathing. Alveolar surface tension and airflow resistance. Spirometry. Total, dead space and alveolar ventilation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Gas exchange: alveolar and peripheral capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood. The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve. Control of breathing.

The Urinary System
Functional properties of the kidney. Nephron. Renal blood circulation. The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance: clearance of inulin and the clearance of p-amino-hyppuric acid. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Hydro-saline regulation. Countercurrent exchange mechanism. Blood pressure regulation by kidneys: renin-angiotensin system. Mechanisms of urinary concentration and dilution. The process of micturition.
Body Fluid Compartments
Composition and volume of body fluid compartments. Osmolarity and bo.dy fluid regulation. Hydro-saline regulation. Acid-base balance: role of respiratory and renal systems.

Gastrointestinal System
Organization and control systems. Secretory function. Motility. Main nutrients digestion and absorption: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Metabolism
Nutrient metabolism. Energy balance: basal metabolism, temperature regulation and exercise. Measuring metabolism: calorimetry (hints). Food energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Endocrine System
Classify hormones and action mechanisms. Endocrine metabolism control: thyroid, pancreatic and adrenal hormones. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis hormones.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Monticelli G. Fisiologia. (2ed). Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosia, 2014
Sherwood L. Fondamenti di fisiologia umana. (4ed). Padova: Piccin, 2012
Silverthorn. Fisiologia Umana. Un approccio integrato. (7ed). Torino: Pearson Italia, 2017
StanfieldCL. Fisiologia. (5ed). Napoli: Edises, 2017
Zocchi L, et al. Principi di Fisiologia. Napoli: Edises, 2012
Anatomia umana
Course syllabus
Definition of: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus.
Tissues: classification and morphological and functional characteristics. Organization of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. Blood.
Definition and classification of organs.
Definition and composition of apparatuses.
Anatomical terminology.
General principles of body organization.
Definition and classification of anatomical spaces.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and function of the skeleton. Definition and classification of joints. Morphology, structure and movements of muscles; tendons. Head, neck, chest and abdominal walls and spaces.
Circulatory system: general organization and function. External and internal morphology of the heart. Morphological and functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves. Localization and function of the cardiac conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries. Function of anastomoses and collateral circles. Definition of pulmonary and district circulation. Description of the superficial venous circulation. Lymphatic system (lymph, organs, lymphatic vessels).
Respiratory system: description of organs and analysis of respiratory mechanisms and links between muscles, chest, costal joints; pleural spaces; anatomical bases of phonation. Air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of organs; structure of the oral cavity, morphology of teeth, development of dentition; architecture and structure of the digestive organs, and analysis of anatomical bases of digestion; analysis of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms of emptying of digestive organs. Liver, with special analysis of morphology and function of liver lobule. Portal vein and its collateral circulations. Extraepatic biliary ducts.
Urinary system: description of organs; kidney and nephron; description of calices, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Endocrine system: description and classification of endocrine glands; analysis of mechanisms of secretion.
Male and female reproductive system: description of male and female reproductive organs; gametonegenesis and its timing in males and females; spermatogenenesis and oogenesis; ovaric and uterine cycle and their relationships.
Tegumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics according to different bodily districts. Skin and appendages. Breast.
Nervous system: definition, composition in organs, functions. Principles of neuroanatomy; function of nervous structures. Anatomical bases of nervous transmission. Principles of main sensory and motory pathways. Integrated and reflex responses; somatotopism. Classification of sensory and consideration on pain.
Central nervous system: systematic description of organs, inner cavities and liquor system.
Peripheric nervous system: description of spinal and encephalic nerves; somatic and visceral innervation. Autonomic nervous system.
Special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell.
Teaching methods
Lessons and praticals with 3D models of the human body
Bibliography
Barbatelli et al. Anatomia umana. Milano: - Edi. Ermes, 2018
Martini FH, et.al. Anatomia Umana. (6ed). Napoli: Edises, 2016
McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Anatomia umana. Padova: Piccin, 2014
Saladini KS. Anatomia Umana. (2ed).Padova: Piccin, 2011
Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. Principi di anatomia e fisiologia. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2011
Anatomia umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professors: Cabras Antonello Domenico, Mastroianni Antonio
Fisiologia
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 30 hours
E-learning: 30 hours
Professor: Milione Massimo