composition of living matter
definition of body construction hierarchies: cell, tissue, organ, system, apparatus
tissues: classification and morpho-functional considerations. General organizational principles of: epithelial tissues (covering epithelia, exocrine and endocrine glandular epithelia); connective tissues; cartilaginous tissue; bone tissue; smooth, skeletal striated muscle tissue and myocardium; nervous tissue; blood (definition of blood group and brief illustration of the AB0 and Rh systems).
definition of organ and constructive principles of the three main categories of organs (parenchymatous, hollow, and filamentous organs).
definition of the organic apparatuses, their composition and classification within the vegetative life and the relation between anatomical terminology.
general organization of bodily constructiveness: the human body as a whole and the identification of the parts that constitute it; comparative observations on the architecture of the limbs with respect to the trunk; definition of body spaces (connective, serosal, neural) and their functional characteristics.
Musculoskeletal system: structure and functions (mechanical and metabolic) of the skeleton. Bone tissue and its dynamism in relation to genetic and environmental determinants; bone remodelling. Growth and ossification processes. Definition and classification of the joints. Muscles: morphology, structure; tendons. Examination of the various body segments as osteo-arthro-muscular complexes, analysing in the main joints the correlation between constructiveness and functional performance, and identifying the muscle groups that act on these joints; in particular, the mechanisms of standing and walking. Walls of the head, neck, chest and abdomen, and relative spaces.
Circulatory system: composition in organs and general functions. External and internal morphology of the heart, morpho-functional analysis of atrio-ventricular and semi-lunar valve devices; location and meaning of the conduction system. Blood vessels: morphology and function of arteries, veins, capillaries; meaning of anastomotic devices and collateral circles. Definition of systemic and pulmonary circle. Identification of the main arteries and veins of the systemic circulation. Foetal circulation. Origin and functions of the lymph, organs and lymphatic vessels.
Respiratory system: description of the organs completed by an examination of the respiratory mechanics highlighting the connections between respiratory musculature, thorax skeleton, rib joints; constructively of the pleural serous space; structure of the lung parenchyma and airway; anatomical bases of phonation. Structure and ultrastructure of the air-blood barrier.
Digestive system: description of the organs; architecture and structure of the buccal cavity, morphology of the teeth, stages of the dentitions; anatomical mechanism of swallowing. Architecture and structure of the digestive tract, highlighting the anatomical bases of digestion and the anatomical-functional differences of the different traits. The liver, with particular reference to the morphology and function of the hepatic lobule. The portal vein and its collateral circulations: functional considerations. Extrahepatic bile ducts. Architecture and structure of the pancreas, major salivary glands and gall bladder.
Urinary system: description of the organs; architecture and structure of the kidney, with particular reference to the morphology and function of the nephron; description of the urinary tract and bladder also in relation to their differences in male and female.
Endocrine system: brief description of the endocrine glands highlighting the heterogeneity of the site, architecture, functional meaning; considerations on the different mechanisms of control of endocrine secretion compared with each other and with exocrine control. Brief morphological description and functional hints of pituitary glands, epiphyses, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, endocrine pancreas, endocrine cells of the ovary, testis and intestinal wall.
Reproductive apparatus: composition in organs of the male and female genital apparatus; definition of gametogenesis and comparison in the two sexes; the stages of spermatogenesis; ovarian and uterine cycles and their interconnections.
Integumentary system: description and composition. Differential characteristics of the skin in different anatomical locations. Skin and skin appendages. The breast.
Nervous system: definition, organ composition, functions. General principles of neuroanatomy; Functional meaning of the different nervous devices. Anatomical basis of the mechanisms of transduction, conduction and transmission of the nervous impulse. Morphogenesis and plasticity of the nervous system. Axial and supra-axial organs; constructive principles of the pathways of sense and the pathways of motion. Reflected and integrated responses. Sensitivity classification. Central nervous system: structural organization and functional outline of the spinal cord, brainstem and brain; internal CNS cavities; liquor circulation. Peripheral nervous system: general information on spinal and encephalic nerves; principles of somatic and visceral innervation. Sympathetic nervous system. Organs and apparatus of the senses: description of eye and ear.
Bibliografia di riferimento Anatomia e Istologia:
Martini et al. Anatomia Umana - Edises, Napoli - VII edition
Saladin - Piccin - Anatomia Umana
Ambrosi et al. Anatomia dell'uomo - Edi. Ermes, Milano - 2006