Basics of animal tissues (types and functions of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues). Locomotor apparatus: Structure and physiology of bone. Anatomy and physiology of the muscle cell. Circulatory apparatus: Anatomy: heart, capillaries, arteries and veins. Physiology: myocardium, cardiac cycle, regulation of the cardiovascular functions. Blood cell. Plasma and serum. Haematopoiesis, haemostasis and coagulation. Lymph and lymphatic vessels. Respiratory Apparatus: Anatomy: airways, lungs, and pleura. Physiology: respiratory cycle, transport of gases, nervous control of breathing. Digestive apparatus: Anatomy: oral cavity, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach in monogastric and in ruminant animals, intestine, pancreas and liver. Physiology: mastication, salivary secretion, swallowing, stomach and prestomach muscular activity, ruminal fermentations, gastric digestion, pancreatic and enteric digestion, bile composition and functions, gastro-enteric hormones, enteric fermentation, enteric motility, absorption. Urinary Apparatus: Anatomy: kidney, ureters, bladder and urethra, renal circulation. Physiology: filtration to glomerular, reabsorption and secretion, endocrine regulation, renal hormones, water-salt steady state, composition of the urine. Female reproductive apparatus: Anatomy: ovary, oviduct and uterus. Physiology: oogenesis, ovarian cycle, ovarian and hypothalamic hormones, pregnancy and delivery. Male reproductive apparatus: Anatomy: testis, excretory genital ducts, accessory genital glands. Physiology: spermatogenesis, male sexual hormones, function of the annexed glands. Biology of the mammary gland: morphology of the breast, endocrine signals in lactopoiesis, mammary secretion, colostrum and milk, endocrinology of the lactation. Comparative anatomy, physiology and habitat of mountain wild vertebrates.