Understanding of the theoretical and practical aspects of Chemical Thermodynamics, which aims to interpret chemical phenomena through laws of general validity. Study of energy exchanges between the study system and the environment in conditions where the system is in equilibrium or in which the system tends to evolve spontaneously.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, the student will be able to apply the principles of Thermodynamics to chemical systems under equilibrium conditions. He/she will be able to use classical Chemical Thermodynamics in the study of phase equilibrium in single-- and multi-component systems and in chemical equilibrium. He/she will understand the physical principles at the basis of chemical phenomena and will be able to apply them to simple practical problems.
Lesson period: First semester
(In case of multiple editions, please check the period, as it may vary)
The properties of gases: perfect gases and their mixtures, real gases, state equations. The first, second, and third law of thermodynamics: work, internal energy, heat, enthalpy, entropy, the Helmholtz and Gibbs energies, the fundamental equation, the chemical potential. Phase equilibria: the phase rule, phase diagrams, phase equilibria in single component systems, the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the vapor pressure, phase diagrams for binary systems._standard enthalpy changes, standard enthalpies of formation, temperature dependence, calorimetric measurements. Thermodynamics of solutions: ideal solutions, the Raoult's and Henry's laws, colligative properties of ideal solutions; non-ideal solutions, activity, activity coefficients and their determination. Reaction equilibria: equilibrium constants for gas phase reactions and reactions in solution, temperature dependence, simultaneous and independent reactions. Numerical solution of problems of chemical thermodynamics.
Prerequisites for admission
Knowledge of the main concepts of differential and integral calculus. Knowledge of basic chemical concepts, stoichiometry of chemical reactions.
Frontal lectures with the aid of projections.
P.W. Atkins, J. De Paula, Physical Chemistry, Oxford University Press, 9th edition, or other editions, limited to the chapters concerning the treated topics. K. Denbigh, The Priciples of Chemical Equilibrium, Cambridge University Press.
Assessement methods and criteria
The examination modality includes a preliminary written test, consisting in the resolution of problems of chemical thermodynamics, and an oral examination with the two teachers on the arguments developed by each of them. The students will be asked to demonstrate that they have understood the fundamentals of chemical thermodynamics and to be able to develop the thermodynamic equations, to know how to apply them logically and to be able to discuss the results obtained in application to different illustrated systems during the lectures.