The course aims to - provide knowledge of the forest ecosystem and of associated arthropod coenosis or correlated to crops in mountain habitats, - learn the techniques of environmental management in a perspective of sustainable development - provide the fundamental knowledge on the different pathogenic agents, how they attack the plants and the kind of alterations and damages that can induce in the hosts. It also deal with the fundamental principles necessary to set up the modern methods of prevention and pest control especially on diseases connected with natural environments and cultures typical of mountain habitats.
Expected learning outcomes
The expected outcomes are: - to know the dynamics and issues related to the arthropods present in a forest environment or correlated to crops in mountain habitats, - to recognize the different agents that can damage cultivated and spontaneous plants, to weigh their dangerousness and to propose preventive measures and criteria of pest control that can be adopted by different kind of agriculture managements preserving natural environments and human health.
Lesson period: Second semester
(In case of multiple editions, please check the period, as it may vary)
It is recommended to have knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of plants; knowledge of agronomic techniques and management of the main herbaceous and arboreal species, with reference to mountain agriculture.
Assessement methods and criteria
The exam consists of an oral test and can be carried out on different dates for each of the two modules. Module 1 (forest entomology) can include an ongoing test relating to the general part of the program. For each individual module the interview on the topics in the program will be based on 2-3 questions, aimed at ascertaining the achievement of the teaching objectives. During the examination, descriptions or comments of images or diagrams related to the individual topics in the program may be requested. The exam will be passed reporting the sufficiency in both modules and the mark for each module contributes 50% to the formation of the final grade of the integrated exam. During the year, various exam sessions are proposed during the periods set by the didactic regulation. The dates of the exsam sessions are regularly and officially published, in the times and in the manner prescribed by the regulations, on the SIFA web pages. As a rule, monthly appeals are scheduled at the Edolo headquarters. In the event that students enrolled in the appeal are less than 5, the appeal will take place at the headquarters of the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, via Celoria 2, Milan and notice of this will be given in time. Students enrolled in an exam session and who no longer wish to support it are required to unsubscribe and possibly promptly notify the teacher in the case of registration already closed. DSA students - In order to take advantage of the facilities provided, must communicate their situation to the Unimi Disabled Office http://www.unimi.it/studenti/serviziodisabiliedsa.htm. Furthermore, it is suggested to discuss with the lecturer during the frequency or during the preparation of the exam in order to have useful suggestions; in any case it is mandatory to communicate that the intention is to use the compensatory / dispensatory tools with adequate advance (at least 10 days) to the teacher to agree on the examination procedures, which remain the responsibility of the same.
GENERAL PART I. INTRODUCTION-Introduction to the study of insects.-Systematic position of insects. Differences between Insects and other Arthropods. General characteristics of insects. II. INSECT BODY STRUCTURE & FUNCTION-Morphology of the head. Parts of the head and appendages (antennae and mouthparts). Mouthparts: chewingr; piercing, sucking (Rhynchota). -Morphology of the thorax. Segments of the thorax. Appendices: wings; legs.-Morphology of the abdomen. Abdominal segments. Appendages.-Integumentary system. Integument and its structure. Exoskeleton. Endoskeleton.-Muscle and locomotion system.-Digestive System. Constitution and structure of the digestive tract. Physiology of digestion. Diets.-Respiratory system. Constitution and structure of tracheal system. Physiology of respiration.-Circulatory system. Constitution and structure of circulatory system. Hemolymph. Physiology of circulation.-Nervous system. Neuron. Central nervous system (brain, gnatocerebro, ventral ganglion chain). Visceral nervous system (dorsal sympathetic, ventral sympathetic, cardio-aortic, caudal sympathetic). Peripheral nervous system. - Sense organs. Chemoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors. Hygroreceptors. Phonoreceptors. Thermoreceptors. Photoreceptors (simple eyes, compound eyes). - Excretory system. Malpighian tubes. Nephrocytes. Adipose tissue. Integument- Secretory system. Glands of external secretion; wax, lac and silk secreting glands, of defence and attack, connected to the reproductive system, to pheromones- Reproductive system. Male and female reproductive system. Reproduction: amphigony; parthenogenesis. Fertility. III. THE LIFE OF INSECTS- Post-embryonic development. Mute. Metamorphosis: heterometabolous; hemimetabolous; holometabolous. Post- embryonic stages: nymphs, larvae, pupae.- The adult insect. Emergence. Sexual dimorphism and secondary sexual characteristics. Polymorphism. IV. CONCEPTS OF CROP PROTECTION - INTEGRATED DEFENSE- Population dynamics. Insect population evaluation methods. Estimating a population. Growth patterns of insect populations. Population fluctuations. Demographic tables. Analysis of key factors.- Biotic and abiotic adversity.- Risk management. Habitat management, concept of agro-ecosystem.- Methods of control. Integrated pest management: changes to the relationships between insects and climate, between insects and plants, between insects and biotic communities. Protection and importation of pest control agents; spread of pathogenic microorganisms, genetic manipulation. Means of biotechnical management. Mechanical management. Silvicultural criteria. Insecticides and their mechanisms of action - formulas.- IPM (integrated pest management). V. FOREST ENTOMOLOGY-Classification of woods. Forest ecology. Forest ecosystem. Climate and edaphic factors. General notions on forest insects.-Leaf litter. Cryptosphere. Organisms involved in the process of humogenesis.-Insects in the forest: the positive and negative effects. Relationships between insects and plants (tritrophic relationships). Influence of biotic and abiotic factors.-Damage caused by insects to forests. Predisposition of forest and resistance to phytophages. SPECIAL SECTION Recognition, morphological and biological characteristics of the Insect Orders, Families and Species listed below. A. HARMFUL INSECTS IN FORESTRY ENVIRONMENT FITOMIZI Aphidoidea - Adelgidae: Sacchiphantes viridis, S. abietis, Adelges laricis, Gilletteella cooleyi, Pineus pini, P. cembrae, Dreyfusia nordmannianaeCoccoidea - Cryptococcidae:Cryptococcus fagisuga DEFOLIATORS Lepidoptera- Coleophoridae:Coleophora griseana- Tortricidae:Zeiraphera diniana, - Thaumetopoeidae:Thaumetopoea pityocampa, T. processionea- Lymantriidae: Lymantria dispar GALLIGENIC Diptera- Cecidomyiidae: Mikiola fagi Hymenoptera- Cynipidae: Cynips spp., Dryocosmus kuriphilus SEED INSECTSLepidoptera- Tortricidae: Cydia splendana XYLOPHAGES Coleoptera - Lyctidae: Lyctus brunneus- Cerambycidae: Hylotrupes bajulus, - Scolytidae:Tomicus minor.
The teachers will use: lectures and classroom exercises es to improve knowledge of some topics of the discipline.
The scheduled topics can be developed using the following teaching materials. 1) J.F. Abgrall, A. Soutrenon La forêt et son ennemis. Cemagref, Grenoble.AA. VV. Manuale di Zoologia agraria. Antonio Delfino Editore. A. Battisti et al. Lineamenti di zoologia forestale. Padova University Press. 2) P. Baronio, N. Baldassari. Insetti dannosi ai boschi di conifere. Edagricole editore; 3) R.G. Davies Lineamenti di Entomologia. Zanichelli; 4) R. Dajoz - Ecologie des insectes forestiers. Gaulthier-Villars; 5) Iconographic sources http://www.forestryimages.orghttp://www.leps.it/indexjs.htm;
The course teaches the students what causes plant diseases, how they develop and spread. It covers the biology, epidemiology, ecological and economic importance, diagnosis and management of the most commonly occurring diseases giving students concepts of diseases connected with natural environments and cultures typical of mountain habitats. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental concepts associated with plant pathology. Lectures regard the following subjects: The concept of disease in plants, classification of plant diseases, importance of plant diseases in crop production. (0.5 CFU) Characteristics of plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses and phytoplasmas. Parasitism and the different stages in the development of diseases. Plant disease epidemiology: the element of an epidemic; structure, development and patterns of epidemics; - Plant diseases caused by viruses and phytoplasmas: grapevine yellows and Flavescence doree - Plant diseases caused by bacteria: crown gall; bacterial cankers (Erwinia spp.); fireblight of rosaceous hosts. - Root diseases caused by fungi: Phytophthora foot, crown and trunk rots; Root and butt rot caused by Armillaria spp. and Heterobasidion annosum. - Vascular wilts, stem rot, stem and twig cankers: Dutch elm disease, various twigs cankers, wood rot and decays caused by basidiomycetes. - Foliar diseases: powdery mildews, downy mildews: general aspects and grapevine diseases - Gray mold - Rusts: stem rust of wheat and other cereals; rusts of forest trees. - (2.5 CFU). Principles of plant disease control: control methods that exclude, eradicate or reduce the pathogen inoculum; direct protection of plants from pathogens by chemical and biological control. Lectures concern important diseases affecting important plant species characteristic of mountain agriculture and Woods (1.5 CFU). Environmental factors that cause plant diseases: temperatute, soil moisture, soil structure, light, air and soil pollutants, and wounds (0.5 CFU). During the ex-cathedra lessons will be treated some of the examples of the disease in the course of exercises in the classroom, students will develop some with the help of the teacher and the rest, always included in the program, they will be left to the individual student study. Topics addressed by the students, individually or in small groups, during exercises and all documents produced will be shared with the other course participants and may be subject to verification in the examination.
The teachers will use: lectures and classroom exercises es to improve knowledge of some topics of the discipline.
The scheduled topics can be developed using the following teaching materials. 1) Notes from lessons; 2) Belli G. - Patologia Vegetale, Piccin, Padova, 2012; 3) Capretti P. Ragazzi A., Elementi di patologia forestale, Pàtron Editore, Bologna, 2009; 4) Matta A., Buonaurio R, Favaron F., Scala A., Scala F.- Fondamenti di Patologia Vegetale, Patron Editore, Bologna, 2017; 5) Agrios G.N. Plant pathology Academic Press; 6) Moriondo F. - Introduzione alla Patologia Forestale UTET. 7) Iconographic sources http://www.forestryimages.org 8) Material available on the course ARIEL website.