Principles of plant protection

A.Y. 2019/2020
8
Max ECTS
80
Overall hours
SSD
AGR/11 AGR/12
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
To provide basic knowledge on the causes of cultivated and spontaneous plant diseases, on diagnostic techniques, on the disease development, and on the criteria to design control strategies. Moreover, the course will provide knowledge on arthropods in various agroecosystems, and on environmental management techniques in a sustainable development context.
Expected learning outcomes
The student will:
- know the main characteristics of the most important plant pathogens, and of their interactions with the host plant;
- know the main strategies used for crop protection and the characteristics of the most important fungicides;
- know the main problems related to arthropods in agroecosystems.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
Prerequisites for admission
The knowledge of plant and animal biology, botany, microbiology and a basic comprehension of ecology is desirable.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Unit 1. The final exam consists of an interview aimed to assess the acquisition of learning objectives and expected learning outcomes. It consists of an interview on the topics included in the program. Two questions will be asked, the first on topics of the point 2) General notions of entomology and acarology. The subject of the second question will be among topics of the points 3), 4), 5), or 6) of the course syllabus.
Unit 2. The final exam aims to assess the acquisition level of learning related to the objectives and the outcomes of the course. Two questions will focus the interview: the first on the fundamentals of plant pathogens and their interactions with the host plant. A second question will concern on diagnosis, prevention and plant disease management.
Plant pathology
Course syllabus
The course aims to provide information on plant pathogens their effects on the crop production and to supply knowledge for the low impact containment of the plant diseases.
1. Main concepts underlying the study of plant pathology and the general criteria for plant protection against the plant disease agents.
2. Concept of plant disease and of disease triangle. Host susceptibility, virulence and host-pathogen specificity. Evolution of environmental conditions for plant pathogen adaptation to climate change
3. Classification of plant diseases and their categorisation: nutritional, auxonic, vascular lytic, necrotic and wood diseases. Disease symptoms: color alterations, anatomic modifications, different kinds of alterations. Crop loss evaluation and damage assessment. Koch's postulates and their application.
4. Aetiology of plant diseases: Fungi, bacteria, viruses and viroids. Taxonomy and classification, diagnosis, epidemiology and containment strategies.
5. Case studies of viral, bacterial and fungal diseases focusing their impact on the environment.
6. Plant protection: exclusion, eradication, resistance, therapy, cultural practices, chemical and biological control. Chemicals used in plant protection: general characteristics and problems related to the pesticide residues. Main fungicide products and fungicide resistance.
Teaching methods
The 4 credit course will be carried out in classroom (3 ECTS), followed by a practical activities in laboratory (0,25 ECTS), exercises in classroom (0,25 ECTS) and field (0,5 ECTS). The lectures will be addressed to the topics reported in the description of the course syllabus. The exercises in the classroom, in the laboratory, and in the field are aimed at providing a practical knowledge of what has been studied during the lectures, by means of experimental inoculations , recognition of symptomatology using examination of photographic material and diseased plants. A visit at a grapevine growing area will serve to focus the current problems occurring for the plant protection.
Teaching Resources
Slides and sitography exposed dirung the lessons. Scientific pubblications. Reference book:G. Belli, Elementi di Patologia Vegetale, Piccin
Entomology
Course syllabus
Course Syllabus Synthesis
1. Phylum Arthropoda, Classes Insecta and Acarina;
2. General notions of entomology;
3. Elements of Insect population ecology · Population dynamic;
4. Concept of damage and economic thresholds and their determination · IPM in agroecosystems, the concept of Key Pest agroecosystem · General concepts of biological control · Using alternative means to chemical control · an example of agro-ecosystem;
5. Insects as biological environmental indicators;
6. The measurement of biodiversity, with particular reference to agricultural entomology

Course Syllabus
1. Introduction - The Phylum Arthropoda
2. General notions of entomology and acarology · Morphology: Head, thorax, abdomen. · Chewing, sucking and piercing mouthparts, the tegument · Internal systems: digestive, excretion, muscular, circulatory, reproductive, endocrine, exocrine and respiratory systems · The neuron and the nervous system and its physiology · Postembryonic development, moulting / metamorphosis, age / stage, holometabolism, hemimetabolism. Mites.
3. Elements of insect population ecology · Population dynamics · Models of growth of a population of insects · Estimating the size of a population: sampling plans · Population fluctuations · r and K Strategies in r and K-selective development environments · Life tables, demographic patterns
4. Concept of damage and economic thresholds and their determination · IPM in agroecosystems, the concept of Key Pest agroecosystem · General concepts of biological control · Using alternative means to chemical control: pheromones, mass trapping, mating disruption · The main agricultural phytophages, systematic notions · A case study agro-ecosystems, the vineyard
5. Insects as biological environmental indicators
6. The measurement of biodiversity, with particular reference to agricultural entomology
Teaching methods
The course is set both in lectures, which account for a total of three ECTS, and in classroom (0.5 ECTS), laboratory (0.25 ECTS) and field (0.25 ECTS) exercises. The topics reported in the description of the course syllabus will be addressed In the lectures. The exercises in the classroom, in the laboratory, and in the field are aimed at providing a practical knowledge of what has been studied during the lectures, by means of 1) dissections of specimens, 2) recognition of taxonomic groups of interest, 3) examination of photographic material and prepared specimens, and 4) a detailed examination of a vine growing area.
Teaching Resources
Gli Insetti e il loro controllo. F. Pennacchio - Liguori Editore, Napoli.
Lineamenti di Entomologia. P.J. Gullan, P.S. Cranston - Zanichelli, Bologna.
Entomologia applicata, volume 1. E. Tremblay - Liguori Editore, Napoli.
Insect Ecology. An ecosystem approach. T.D: Schowalter - Academic Press (available on line).
Lecture slides and notes
Entomology
AGR/11 - GENERAL AND APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY - University credits: 4
Field activity: 4 hours
Practicals: 8 hours
Laboratories: 4 hours
Lessons: 24 hours
Plant pathology
AGR/12 - PLANT PATHOLOGY - University credits: 4
Practicals: 8 hours
Laboratories: 8 hours
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
Monday from 10 to 12 am
BioProtection Group, Building former Patologia vegetale
Reception:
Monday 14.30-15.30
DiPSA