General properties of microrganisms
General concepts about communicable diseases, the pathogenesis of the microrganisms, the intercation microrganisms-host, the mode of transmission of microrganisms, the meaning of acute, persistent, chronic and latent infection.
Epidemiology of the communicable diseases: disease determinants, the "iceberg" concept, epidemiological indexes
General properties of viruses
Description of the structure and of the main morphological characteristics of viruses
Classification of viruses
Description of the main steps of the viral replicative cycle into the host cells
Properties and pathogenesis of the main viral families of medical interest
The following viral families will be described, focusing mainly on their morphologic features, genomic organization, replicative cycle, interaction with the host and pathogenic mechanisms:
· Picornaviridae, Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Coronaviridae
· Orthomixoviridae, Paramixoviridae, Pneumoviridae, Filoviridae, Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae
· Herpesviridae, Parvoviridae, Adenoviridae, Polyomaviridae, Papillomaviridae
· Main hepatic viruses (HAV; HBV; HCV; HDV; HGV)
Description of Prions and retroid viruses
General properties of bacteria:
Description of Bacterial cell morphology, distinguishing between fundamental and accessory structures, description of metabolic processes of bacterial cell (fermentation, aerobic and anaerobic respiration), gene transfer
Description of the main differences between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria Gram and Ziehl Nielsen staining
Description of bacterial cell division and description of bacterial growth curve
Pathogenicity and virulence factors
Properties and pathogenesis of the main bacterial groups of medical relevance
The following bacteria groups will be described, focusing mainly on their morphological features, virulence factors, and interaction with the host and on pathogenic mechanisms:
· Staphylococcus, Streptococcus,
· Corynebacterium, Listeria, Bacillus,
· Enterobacteriaceae (E.Coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia)
· Bordetella, Brucella, Haemophylus Influenzae, Legionella
· Batteri Enterici (Helicobacter Pylori, Vibrio Cholerae)
· Rickettise, Chlamydia
MYCOLOGY AND PARASSITOLOGY
Brief description of the main properties of Fungi (Candida Albicans, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus) and Protozoa (Plasmodium and Toxoplasma): structure and morphology, reproduction and transmission, pathogenic mechanisms of the most mycosis and parasitic infections of medical interest.
Non formal teaching:
Practical course of bacteriology: bacteria count, dilution, isolation and identification of bacteria, Gram and Ziehl Nielsen staining, biochemistry tests.
Prerequisites for admission
Students must have fulfilled all the prerequisite requirements indicated in the study plan: General and cellular biology.
Students can choose one of these textbooks the following:
Microbiologia Medica, Antonelli, Clementi, Pozzi, Rossolini, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Microbiologia Medica, Murray, Rosenthal, Pfaller, Edra s.p.a.
Microbiologia Medica, Jawetz, Melnick and Adelberg, Piccin
Assessement methods and criteria
The exam consists in two facultative intermediate written test consisting of 5 open questions, which will be evaluated based on the ability of the student to express with clarity and language appropriateness the morphological and genetic characteristics, the pathogenesis and the relationship with the host of the microbial agent. Each test is evaluated in thirtieths and the final mark is given by the mean of the two intermediate marks. The first test is administrated at the end of the first half of the course and is about the general and special virology and about the mycology, while the second test is administrated at the end of the course and is about the general and special bacteriology, the laboratory of bacteriology, and the parasitology.
Alternatively, there is a final oral test in which the student will be evaluated based on the ability to express with clarity and language appropriateness the morphological and genetic characteristics, the pathogenesis and the relationship with the host of the microbial agent. Passing the test results in a mark expressed in thirtieths.