Agricultural biochemistry and physiology of medicinal plants

A.Y. 2017/2018
Lesson for
6
Max ECTS
48
Overall hours
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Il corso fornisce allo studente le conoscenze riguardo i principali processi biochimici e fisiologici delle piante. Il corso affronta aspetti del metabolismo vegetale primario e secondario, della fisiologia e delle interazioni pianta-ambiente. Questi argomenti saranno approfonditi in relazione alla produzione e alla qualità delle piante officinali.

Course structure and Syllabus

Active edition
Yes
Responsible
Lessons: 48 hours
ATTENDING STUDENTS
Syllabus
PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN HIGHER PLANTS (1 CFU) - Chemical-physical properties of light. Photosynthetic pigments. Organization of the photosynthetic apparatus. The photosynthetic light reactions. Roles of photosystems I and I, cytochrome membrane complexes, electron and proton transfer systems. The photophosphorylation mechanism. Repair and regulation of the photosynthetic machinery. The Calvin cycle. Photorespiration. C4 carbon cycle. Crassulacean acid metabolism. Physiological and ecological considerations about photosynthesis.
GLUCONEOGENESIS IN PLANT, PLANT RESPIRATION AND LIGHT CONTROL OF PLANT DEVELOPMENT (1 CFU) - Synthesis of starch and sucrose. Seed germination. Lipid metabolism in plants. The glyoxylate cycle. Gluconeogenesis in plant. Plant respiration: specific systems involved in the transfer of reducing equivalents and the alternative respiratory pathway. Phytochrome and light control of plant development. The photo-physiology of blue-light responses and signal transduction.
TRANSPORT AND TRANSLOCATION OF WATER AND SOLUTES IN PLANT (1 CFU) - The structure and properties of water. The concept of water potential and cell-water relations in plant. The water balance of plants. Water absorption by roots. Water transport through the xylem. Leaf transpiration and stomatal control. Solute transport. Chemical potential. Passive and active transport and membrane transport processes. Kinetic properties of transport proteins. Ion transport in roots and xylem loading. Translocation in the phloem. Photosynthate allocation and partitioning.
MINERAL NUTRITION, RHIZOSPHERE, SOIL-PLANT INTERACTIONS (1 CFU) - Mineral nutrition. Macro- and micro- nutrients. Summary of plant mineral deficiencies. The concept of rhizosphere and soil-plant-microbe interactions. Nitrate and ammonium assimilation. Biological nitrogen fixation. Sulfur assimilation. Summary of amino acid metabolism. Nutritional roles of phosphate and cations.
PLANT SECONDARY METABOLISM (1 CFU): Plant defence, secondary metabolism and evolution. Biosynthetic pathways and physiological functions of terpenes. Biosynthesis and physiological roles of phenolic compounds (lignin, coumarins, flavonoids, phytoalexins and tannins). Biosynthesis and physiological roles of nitrogen-containing compounds (alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, and nonprotein amino acids). Summary of plant defence systems against pathogens.
PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND STRESS PHYSIOLOGY (1 CFU) - Physiological aspects and actions of plant growth regulators. Auxins. Cytokinins. Gibberellins. Ethylene. Abscisic acid. Stress physiology: water deficit and salt stress, heat stress and chilling injury, oxygen deficiency. Experimental strategies to improve plant metabolite production.
NON-ATTENDING STUDENTS
Syllabus
PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN HIGHER PLANTS (1 CFU) - Chemical-physical properties of light. Photosynthetic pigments. Organization of the photosynthetic apparatus. The photosynthetic light reactions. Roles of photosystems I and I, cytochrome membrane complexes, electron and proton transfer systems. The photophosphorylation mechanism. Repair and regulation of the photosynthetic machinery. The Calvin cycle. Photorespiration. C4 carbon cycle. Crassulacean acid metabolism. Physiological and ecological considerations about photosynthesis.
GLUCONEOGENESIS IN PLANT, PLANT RESPIRATION AND LIGHT CONTROL OF PLANT DEVELOPMENT (1 CFU) - Synthesis of starch and sucrose. Seed germination. Lipid metabolism in plants. The glyoxylate cycle. Gluconeogenesis in plant. Plant respiration: specific systems involved in the transfer of reducing equivalents and the alternative respiratory pathway. Phytochrome and light control of plant development. The photo-physiology of blue-light responses and signal transduction.
TRANSPORT AND TRANSLOCATION OF WATER AND SOLUTES IN PLANT (1 CFU) - The structure and properties of water. The concept of water potential and cell-water relations in plant. The water balance of plants. Water absorption by roots. Water transport through the xylem. Leaf transpiration and stomatal control. Solute transport. Chemical potential. Passive and active transport and membrane transport processes. Kinetic properties of transport proteins. Ion transport in roots and xylem loading. Translocation in the phloem. Photosynthate allocation and partitioning.
MINERAL NUTRITION, RHIZOSPHERE, SOIL-PLANT INTERACTIONS (1 CFU) - Mineral nutrition. Macro- and micro- nutrients. Summary of plant mineral deficiencies. The concept of rhizosphere and soil-plant-microbe interactions. Nitrate and ammonium assimilation. Biological nitrogen fixation. Sulfur assimilation. Summary of amino acid metabolism. Nutritional roles of phosphate and cations.
PLANT SECONDARY METABOLISM (1 CFU): Plant defence, secondary metabolism and evolution. Biosynthetic pathways and physiological functions of terpenes. Biosynthesis and physiological roles of phenolic compounds (lignin, coumarins, flavonoids, phytoalexins and tannins). Biosynthesis and physiological roles of nitrogen-containing compounds (alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, and nonprotein amino acids). Summary of plant defence systems against pathogens.
PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND STRESS PHYSIOLOGY (1 CFU) - Physiological aspects and actions of plant growth regulators. Auxins. Cytokinins. Gibberellins. Ethylene. Abscisic acid. Stress physiology: water deficit and salt stress, heat stress and chilling injury, oxygen deficiency. Experimental strategies to improve plant metabolite production.
Lesson period
Second semester
Lesson period
Second semester
Assessment methods
Esame
Assessment result
voto verbalizzato in trentesimi
Professor(s)
Reception:
Tuesday 14:00 - 17:00. Friday 14:00 - 16:00. Other days by appointment.
Office - Building 9 (Floor 1)