The aim of the course is to provide geological and geotechnical knowledge for the understanding of the natural phenomena that may affect the development and fruition of cultural heritages, both landscapes and/or architectural heritages. Additionally, the student must acquire appropriate training that allows multidisciplinary relationships with other professionals, which are involved in the protection and management of goods.
At the end of the course, the student will acquire basic knowledge about the rheology of geological media (soils, rocks and rock masses), of the main geotechnical and geomorphological processes to which they may be subject. The student will therefore be able to formulate reasonable hypotheses on the main issues that may affect the preservation and enjoyment of cultural, landscape and architectural heritage, in relation to their geological and geotechnical context. He will have a geological-technical glossary suitable to understand the content of geological-applicative documents, including thematic maps of susceptibility to instability, hazard and risk.
The course covers issues related to the assessment of natural hazards and risks that may compromise or threaten the preservation of cultural heritage, by developing approaches at different scale, from the regional scale to the local site scale. Both scales will include an introductory discussion on the general and theoretical principles related to the subject, with reference to current legislation, the presentation of survey and monitoring tools, analysis methods, and some indications on design and mitigation actions for the preservation of cultural heritage.
Part prof APUANI Introduction:What are Engineering Geology and Applied Geology? Fields of application and survey tools.Which are the geological means? SOIL: Genetic Environments Physical properties of soils: Properties of individual granules. Properties of aggregate soil. Relative density. Consistency limits. Geotechnical Classification Systems (USCS). Groudwater flow Soil Mechanics: Principle of effective stress. Geostatic tensions, effect of phreatic and confining aquifer. Consolidation phenomenon (Oedometric Test). Shear strength criterions and parameters (Uniaxial and triaxial compression tests. Direct shear strength test). ROCK MASSES: intact rock plus joints. Continuous or discontinuous behavior? Intact rock material: Index properties. Strength and deformability properties. Laboratory tests: point load test; uniaxial compression test and triaxial compression test, Brasilian test, Direct tension test. Mechanical classification of intact rocks. Joints properties: roughness (JRC); wall compressive strength (JCS). Joint shear strength parameters. Rock masses: rock mass characterization and classification (the he Rock Mass rating classification of Bieniawski RMR). The preservation of Cultural Heritage: local scale EXAMPLES Foundation Issues: Types of foundations, failure and settlement problems. Examples applied to architectural heritage. Landslides: Classifications, causes. Examples applied to landscape and architectural heritage. Stability of slopes, pit and underground excavations.
Part prof MASETTI The preservation of Cultural Heritage: EXAMPLES AT REGIONAL SCALE INTRODUCTION; definition and examples of hazard, vulnerability and risk LANDSLIDE - Landslides hazard mapping with applications to cultural heritage sites: landslides inventory, territorial units and methods for hazards assessment (empirical, qualitative, deterministic and statistical; metodhs for rockfall hazard EROSION - Erosion effects on the environment (alpine areas, coastal areas, arid zones): evaluation methods and influencing factors FLOOD - Identification of flooding areas: evaluation methods; influencing factors; environmental restrictions SEISMICITY- Small scale seismic hazard mapping with examples to cultural heritage site preservation: definitions, level 1 analysis (critical morphological and geological conditions for seismic amplification and instability), level 2 analysis (slope stability, liquefaction, settlements).