- Water cycle: rainfall, evapotranspiration, Infiltration, surface circulation. Hydrological balance. Soil water cycle and relative balance, soil water regimes.
- River recharge. Fluvial sections, discharge, hydrograms. Maximum and minimum discharge, bankfull and minimum flow, anthropogenic impact on maximum flows.
- Fluvial regimes.
- Catchments. Network analysis: river network hierarchy and ephemeral streams. Rivers and torrents. Channel morphology, hypsographic profile. Base level. Sediment erosion and transport processes: fluvial capacity and competence, shaping of slopes and shaping of riverbeds.
- Fluvial riverbeds, stream trajectories, braided streams, bars, meandering rivers.
- Fluvial terraces. Abandoned streams, buried streams. Erosional morphologies: gorges, ravines, canyons, falls, potholes, river captures.
- Alluvial fans.
- Lakes: origin, evolution, deposits.
- Permafrost. Criogenic weathering processes. Asymmetric valleys, rock glaciers, Pingo. Palsa. Thermokarst.
- Glaciers: snow metamorphism and Ice generation. Glacier dynamics. Aggradation, ablation, equilibrium hinge. Thermal classification of glaciers. Valley glaciers, ice caps. Glacial erosion and transport. Black and white glaciers. Glacial surges. Glacio-Isostasy, glacio-eustatism.
- Erosional morphologies: exaration, abrasion, quarrying. Glacial circus and valley, ombilic, verrou, horn, hanging valleys, fjords, roches moutonnées. Glacial erosional microforms. Subglacial carbonate concretions.
- Depositional morphologies: moraines, accreted moraines, rogen, drumlin, fluted moraine, De Geer moraine, ice push ridge, esker, kame (terraces and hills), hummocky moraines, ice disintegration morphology.
- Glacigenic depositional environments: supraglacial, endoglacial, subglacial, ice-marginal, proglacial. Glacial deposits: ablation till, lodgement till, flow till, water lain till. Lacustrine deposits: supraglacial, subglacial, ice-contact, proglacial. Glacial delta deposits. Glaciofluvial deposits: subglacial, marginal and periglacial. Ice-contact deposits. Loess. Peat bogs.