Objectives The Course of Applied Biology aims to let the students know the morpho-functional and metabolic properties of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, as well as to give the basic knowledge of the genetic code and gene expression regulation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Topics STUDY OF LIFE Biology introduction. Properties of living organisms; cellular theory; prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Variability of living beings and evolution.
THE EUKARYOTIC CELL Eukaryotic cells shape, size and structure; plasma membrane: structure and permeability; the cytoplasm; the nucleus-nuclear membrane, structure and function; nucleolus, DNA, chromatin, chromosomes; ribosomes: structure and function; the system of intracellular membranes: structure and function of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, the lysosome, the peroxisome; mitochondria: structure and inheritance; the cytoskeleton and its peculiarity to define the cell shape and movement: microtubules, intermediate filaments and microfilaments.
GENETIC INFORMATION Nucleic acids: DNA, RNA and proteins; the structure of DNA; DNA replication; gene expression information: DNA transcription, maturation of primary transcripts, the genetic code, translation, post-translational modifications and final destination of proteins
MODULE: HUMAN ANATOMY
Objectives The Course of Human Anatomy aims to let students acquire knowledge about the following: - morphologic organization of the human body from the organ to the system/apparatus level, - position of organs inside the body and their anatomical relationships, - main morpho-functional relationships of anatomical structures in the human body.
Topics STRUCTURE OF THE BODY General organization of the human body; anatomical terms; body spaces, cavities, and regions; organs, organ systems, and apparatuses.
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM General organization of the skin and its accessory structures.
SKELETAL AND MUSCULAR SYSTEM General structure of bones, joints, and muscles; axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton; joints of human body; muscles of the head and neck, muscles of the trunk, muscles that move the upper and lower extremities.
NERVOUS SYSTEM Central nervous system: spinal cord; brain: brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, cerebrum; meninges; cerebrospinal fluid; main ascending and descending pathways. Peripheral nervous system: cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and plexuses: general information and territory of innervation; autonomic nervous system: general organization. Sense organs: taste receptors, smell receptors, eye, and ear: general organization.
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM General organization of the circulatory system; heart; main arteries and their territory of distribution; main veins and their territory of drainage; lymphatic system: general organization.
HEMATOPOIETIC AND LYMPHOID ORGANS Bone marrow; thymus; tonsils; lymph nodes; spleen.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Oral cavity: teeth, tongue, salivary glands; pharynx; esophagus; stomach; small intestine; large intestine; liver; biliary system; pancreas; peritoneum.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Respiratory tract: nose and paranasal sinuses, pharynx; larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles; lungs; pleura.
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Testes; reproductive ducts: epididymis, ductus deferens, eiaculatory duct; urethra; glands: seminal vesicles, prostate gland.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Ovaries; reproductive ducts: uterine tubes, uterus, vagina.
Objectives The Course of Histology aims to let students understand the following: - organization of the cell and the function of its constituent organelles, - organization of the four basic tissue types.