Chemistry and Laboratory

A.Y. 2016/2017
9
Max ECTS
84
Overall hours
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course is a prerequisite for subsequent courses of Mineralogy and Geochemistry. Its purpose is to provide the tools needed to understand chemical language and the foundation of chemistry (atom, chemical bonding, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics), the learning of which is essential to proceed in the earth science study.
Expected learning outcomes
Understanding of the chemical language and knowledge of basic chemistry (matter, stoichiometry, atomic structure, chemical bonding, reactivity, chemical equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics)
Course syllabus and organization

Unique edition

Lesson period
First semester
Syllabus
Matter and Measurements: Matter and Its Classifications ; Measurements ; Properties of Substances. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions: Atoms and the Atomic Theory ; Components of the Atom ; Quantitative Properties of the Atom ; Introduction to the Periodic Table ; Molecules and Ions ; Formulas of Ionic Compounds ; Names of Compounds . Mass Relations in Chemistry; Stoichiometry: The Mole ; Mass Relations in Chemical Formulas ; Mass Relations in Reactions . Reactions in Aqueous Solution: Precipitation Reactions ; Acid-Base Reactions ; Oxidation-Reduction Reactions . Gases: Measurements on Gases ; The Ideal Gas Law ; Gas Law Calculations ; Stoichiometry of Gaseous Reactions ; Gas Mixtures: Partial Pressures and Mole Fractions ; Kinetic Theory of Gases ; Real Gases . Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table: Light, Photon Energies, and Atomic Spectra ; The Hydrogen Atom ; Quantum Numbers ; Atomic Orbitals; Shapes and Sizes ; Electron Configurations in Atoms ; Orbital Diagrams of Atoms ; Electron Arrangements in Monatomic Ions ; Periodic Trends in the Properties of Atoms . Covalent Bonding : Lewis Structures; The Octet Rule; Molecular Geometry ; Polarity of Molecules ; Atomic Orbitals; Hybridization . Thermochemistry: Principles of Heat Flow ; Measurement of Heat Flow; Calorimetry ; Enthalpy ; Thermochemical Equations ; Enthalpies of Formation ; Bond Enthalpy ; The First Law of Thermodynamics . Liquids and Solids: Comparing Solids, Liquids, and Gases ; Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium ; Phase Diagrams ; Molecular Substances; Intermolecular Forces ; Network Covalent, Ionic, and Metallic Solids ; Crystal Structures . Solutions: Concentration Units ; Principles of Solubility ; Colligative Properties of Nonelectrolytes; Colligative Properties of Electrolytes. Rate of Reaction: Meaning of Reaction Rate ; Reaction Rate and Concentration ; Reactant Concentration and Time ; Models for Reaction Rate ; Reaction Rate and Temperature ; Catalysis ; Reaction Mechanisms . Gaseous Chemical Equilibrium: The N2O4-NO2 Equilibrium System ; The Equilibrium Constant Expression ; Determination of K ; Applications of the Equilibrium Constant ; Effect of Changes in Conditions on an Equilibrium System . Acids and Bases: Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Model ; The Ion Product of Water ; pH and pOH ; Weak Acids and Their Equilibrium Constants ; Weak Bases and Their Equilibrium Constants ; Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions . Equilibria in Acid-Base Solutions: Buffers ; Acid-Base Indicators ; Acid-Base Titrations . Complex Ion and Precipitation Equilibria: Complex Ion Equilibria; Formation Constant (Kf) ; Solubility; Solubility Product Constant (Ksp) ; Precipitate Formation ; Dissolving Precipitates . Spontaneity of Reaction: Spontaneous Processes ; Entropy, S ; Free Energy, G ; Standard Free Energy Change, ΔG° ; Effect of Temperature, Pressure, and Concentration on Reaction Spontaneity ; The Free Energy Change and the Equilibrium Constant ; Additivity of Free Energy Changes; Coupled Reactions . Electrochemistry: Voltaic Cells ; Standard Voltages ; Relations Between E°, ΔG°, and K ; Effect of Concentration on Voltage ; Electrolytic Cells ; Commercial Cells . Nuclear Reactions : Nuclear Stability; Radioactivity The Human Side: Marie Curie; Rate of Radioactive Decay ; Mass-Energy Relations ; Nuclear Fission ; Nuclear Fusion . Complex Ions: Composition of Complex Ions ; Naming Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds ; Geometry of Complex Ions ; Electronic Structure of Complex Ions . Chemistry of the Metals: Metallurgy ; Reactions of the Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals; Redox Chemistry of the Transition Metals. Chemistry of the Nonmetals: The Elements and Their Preparation ; Hydrogen Compounds of Nonmetals ; Oxygen Compounds of Nonmetals ; Oxoacids and Oxoanions .
Practicals: 36 hours
Lessons: 48 hours