Engineering Geology and Laboratory

A.Y. 2015/2016
Lesson for
9
Max ECTS
80
Overall hours
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Il corso, dopo una prima introduzione generale ai principi di meccanica del continuo e ai modelli reologici semplici, si articola in una prima parte dedicata alla definizione delle proprietà fisico-meccaniche dei terreni e alle tecniche di laboratorio per la loro determinazione sperimentale; una seconda parte è rivolta alla caratterizzazione geomeccanica di rocce e discontinuità ed una terza che tratta i principi base di conoscenza della circolazione idrica in suoli e rocce definendo le proprietà di acquiferi, acquitardi ed acquicludi.
Particolare attenzione viene posta alla comprensione delle relazioni che legano i caratteri "geologici" (petrografici-tessiturali) e le proprietà fisiche derivate, al comportamento meccanico e idrogeologico di tali materiali.
Sono descritte le acque sotterranee nel ciclo idrologico, che comprende precipitazioni, evapotraspirazione, deflusso superficiale e infiltrazione.
Sono proposte semplici elaborazioni di dati idrogeologici (sezioni idrogeologiche, carte piezometriche, etc.) anche mediante utilizzo di computer.

Course structure and Syllabus

Active edition
Yes
Responsible
Practicals: 24 hours
Lessons: 56 hours
Syllabus
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY AND LABORATORY
The course is intended to provide the basic principles of soil and rock mechanics. After a general introduction to the rheology fundaments, the physical and mechanical properties of soil are treated, describing the main laboratory techniques. The second part is addressed to the geomechanical characterization of rock material and discontinuities by laboratory tests. The basic knowledge on the rock masses geomechanical characterization and their engineering classification are supplied. Much of the themes are object of practical exercises.
The third part of the course supply the basic knowledge of hydrogeology, defining aquifer, aquitard and aquiclude in the subsoiland the factors controlling the groundwater flow. Groundwater in the hydrologic cycle, involving precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface flow and infiltration are described too.
Simple elaborations of experimental hydrogeological data are proposed (hydrogeological cross, section, piezometric maps, etc.) with computer exercises too.

Introduction :Why should we study the physical and mechanical properties of geo-materials? Which methods can we used to defined physical and mechanical parameters?
Theoretical Principles: Stress and strain tensors a their relations. Basic reological models. The stress path and stress state representation by "Mohr-Coulomb circle"
Soil description and classification: the nature of soil. Particle size analysis. Phase relationships. Relative density . Consistency and Atterberg limits. Geotechnical soil classification (Unified Soil Classification System).
Soil Mechanics: Principle of effective stress. Geostatic tensions, effect of phreatic and confining aquifer. Consolidation theory. Oedometric Test. Shear strength criterions and parameters (friction angle and cohesion). Uniaxial and triaxial compression tests. Direct shear strength test.
Rock masses: Continuous or discontinuous behaviour?
Intact rock material: Index properties. Laboratory tests: point load test; uniaxial compression test and triaxial compression test, Brasilian test, Direct tension test. Mechanical classification of intact rocks.
Joints properties: roughness (JRC); wall compressive strength (JCS). Joint shear strength parameters: Barton empirical equation; Direct shear strength test.
Rock masses: Procedures for geomechanical rock mass characterization and engineering
Introduction to hydrogeology: Water budget. Measurement of the water budget parameters.
Measurement methods of hydrogeological parameters: porosity and void index, permeability and hydraulic conductivity, water content and saturation degree. Heterogeneity and anisotropy in soils and rocks.
Fundamental law of groundwater flow. Darcy law. Mass conservation law.
Hydrogeological characterization of the subsoil: Aquifer, aquitard, aquiclude and aquifuge. Hydrogeological structure and boundaries. Hydrogeological cross section reconstruction
Groundwater flow: Piezometric maps. Surface water and groundwater interaction.
Flow in fissured and karstic rocks: groundwater in fractures and fracture systems. Groundwater in soluble rocks.
Hydraulic conductivity measures: laboratory and in situ test (Lefranc, slug test, Lugeon).
Lesson period
First semester
Lesson period
First semester
Assessment methods
Esame
Assessment result
voto verbalizzato in trentesimi