Fornire agli studenti un approfondimento dei principi fisici della circolazione delle acque sotterranee e del trasporto di soluti al loro interno, della circolazione atmosferica e oceanica, della evoluzione delle calotte glaciali.
Physical properties of the compartments of fluid Earth. Physical properties and structure of the atmosphere, of surface and ground water and of ice; structure of seas, oceans and ice sheets. Conservation equations. Continuity equation; equation of conservation of linear momentum; scale analysis, hydrostatic, geostrophic and shallow-ice approximations; Hubbert's and matric potential; balance equations for deformable and unsaturated porous media and for confined, phreatic and layered aquifers; coastal aquifers. Energy balance. Energy transport: convection, conduction and radiation; energy balance at the ground; evapotranspiration, Bowen ratio and Penman's equations. Motion of the fluid compartments of the Earth. Atmospheric and oceanic circulation; evolution of polar ice sheets; solutions of the balance equations for porous media - Thiem, Dupuit and Theis laws. Solute transport. Equations of convective and diffusive transport; interpretation of dispersion with the theory of stochastic processes; reactions. Mathematical modeling. Solution of the convective transport equation and of the diffusion equation in stationary and transient conditions with the finite difference method; development and application of mathematical models.