Geophysical Fluid Dynamics and Laboratory

A.Y. 2017/2018
Lesson for
9
Max ECTS
84
Overall hours
SSD
GEO/12
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
1. To introduce the physical laws governing flow and transport in air, water and soils.
2. To introduce physical tools to analyze observations from monitoring networks in atmosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere.
3. To introduce elements of the radiative balance of the planet Earth and the role of atmosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere in the energy balance.
1. Ability to read and understand scientific papers and technical reports dealing with the physical aspects of the dynamics of atmosphere, cryosphere and hydrosphere.
2. Ability to design models of flow and transport (mass balance, energy balance, solute transport, etc.) in atmosphere, cryosphere and hydrosphere.
3. Ability to critically analyze the results of monitoring physical quantities in atmosphere, cryosphere and hydrosphere.

Course structure and Syllabus

Active edition
Yes
Responsible
modulo: Dinamica dei Fluidi Geofisici
GEO/12 - OCEANOGRAPHY AND PHYSICS OF THE ATMOSPHERE - University credits: 6
Lessons: 48 hours
unità didattica: Laboratorio di Dinamica dei Fluidi Geofisici
GEO/12 - OCEANOGRAPHY AND PHYSICS OF THE ATMOSPHERE - University credits: 3
Practicals: 36 hours
modulo: Dinamica dei Fluidi Geofisici
Syllabus
Basic elements about water cycle and the general characteristics of atmosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere(composition, vertical structure, etc.). Physical properties of water in its various forms.
Equation of motion of atmosphere, surface waters, groundwater and polar ice caps. Geostrophic and hydrostatic approximations. Shallow ice approximation.
Energy balance and heat equation: conduction advection, radiation, evapotranspiration. Basic thermodynamics of the atmosphere: variation of air pressure and density with elevation. State equation for dry air and corrections for wet air. The first principle of thermodynamics for the atmosphere; adiabatic transformation for dry and wet air.
Characteristics of atmospheric and oceanic circulation.
Contaminant transport in atmosphere and hydrosphere: advection, molecular diffusion, turbulent and hydrodynamic dispersion.


Laboratory:

1. Basic concepts of statistics and stochastic processes. Examples of applications for data interpolation and for the stochastic simulation of physical and categorical quantities.
2. General concepts on geophysical measurements: physical principles of instruments for measuring electrical signals; analog vs. digital measurements, A/D conversion; accuracy, precision and resolution; data storage and transmission systems; experiments vs. monitoring.
3. Measurements of atmospheric parameters: temperature, humidity, pressure, wind velocity and wind direction, (direct, diffuse, net) radiation gauges. Hydrological and oceanographic measurements: level gauges; wave and current monitoring buoys; vertical profiler of water parameters; bathymetric surveys; AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle) and wave glider; measures of soil water content and suction (capacitive - TDR, FDR - and resistive sensors; tensiometers).
4. Measurements for passive geophysical prospecting: gravity; Earth's magnetic field; self-potentials; vibrations and microtremors (HVSR). Measurements for active geophysical prospecting: resistivity methods (VES, ERGI); induced polarization; seismic measurements (refraction seismic, MASW); electromagnetic prospecting (VLF, FDEM, TDEM); GPR (Ground penetrating radar).
Lesson period
Second semester
Lesson period
Second semester
Assessment methods
Esame
Assessment result
voto verbalizzato in trentesimi
Educational website(s)
Professor(s)
Reception:
to be arranged via e-mail or phone
via Cicognara 7
Reception:
By phone or mail appointment
via Cicognara 7