Al termine del Corso lo studente dovrà conoscere i metodi e gli strumenti dell'indagine morfologica conoscere la morfologia delle cellule e dei tessuti dell'organismo umano; conoscere i principali meccanismi attraverso i quali si realizza la maturazione degli elementi germinali, la fecondazione e lo sviluppo dell'organismo umano; essere in grado di osservare, descrivere ed identificare i diversi organelli della cellula eucariotica, i diversi tessuti e la loro localizzazione nell'ambito degli organi; conoscere: l'organizzazione del corpo umano, la forma e la sede degli organi dei diversi apparati corporei e le principali caratteristiche strutturali che sono alla base delle funzioni degli organi
· Main methods in histology: Tissue preparation (fixation, embedding, slicing, staining). Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Light and electron microscopy. · Epithelial tissue: structure, ultra structure, and major functions. Classification of Epithelia (simple and stratified) and examples. Relations with the underlying connective tissue. Morphological and functional cell polarity. Apical, lateral and basal domain and its specializations. Epithelial cell renewal. · Glands: structure, ultrastructure. Exocrine glands: classification criteria. Different mechanisms of secretion. Examples of exocrine glands (based on different classification criteria). Endocrine glands: classification criteria, mode of secretion and chemical nature of the secreted hormone. Cytological and histological characters of the main endocrine glands: interstitial cells of the testis and ovary, the islets of Langerhans, pituitary, adrenal cortex, corpus luteum, parathyroid, thyroid. · Sensory epithelia: general characteristics and examples. · Connective tissue proper: structure and functions. Extracellular matrix: amorphous substance, proteoglycans and glycoproteins; collagen, reticular and elastic fibers. Connective tissue cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells, adipose cells, mesenchymal stem cells. Loose and dense connective tissue. White and brown adipose tissue. · Cartilage: structure and functions. Hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage. · Bone tissue: compact and spongy architecture. General structure of bones. Microscopic structure of bone lamellar and non-lamellar. Periosteum and endosteum. Bone matrix (the organic and inorganic). Cells of bone tissue (osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts). Bone formation: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. · Blood: structure and functions. Plasma. Erythrocytes and platelets. Granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) and agranulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). Hemopoiesis: an outline. · Muscle tissue: structure and functions. Skeletal muscle tissue, organization of striated muscle fiber, myofibrils and myofilaments. Neuromuscular junction. Cardiac muscle: organization of cardiac muscle fiber. Smooth muscle. · Nerve tissue: structure and functions. The neuron: ultrastructure of the cell body, axon and dendrites. Axonal transport. Different types of neurons. Unmyelinated and myelinated nerve fibers. Myelin sheath and myelination process. Synapses. Glial cells of the PNS, CNS and microglia. · General embryology: Oogenesis. Ovarian cycle. Uterine cycle. Spermatogenesis. Fertilization and blastocyst implantation. Determination and totipotency of the blastomeres. Decidualization. Formation of the three germ layers. Longitudinal and side folds. Derivatives of the three germ
Modulo: Anatomia Umana
Anatomy: · General anatomy: Anatomical position, the anatomical planes and the terms used to describe body movements. General organization of the human body (body spaces). General structure of the organs. · Integumentary system: Skin: general features and structure. Skin appendages: general features. Breast gland. · Locomotor system: Bones: structure and classification; osteogenesis; bones of the skull, trunk and limbs. Joints: classification and structure; description of the main joints. Muscles: general morphology and structure; tendons: morphology and structure; study of the main muscles and muscular groups. Walls of the head, throat, thorax, abdomen, and relative body spaces. Limbs: general structure. · Cardiovascular system: Heart and blood vessels: General structure. Heart: morphology, position, structure. Pericardium. Blood vessel structure. Systemic and pulmonary circuits. Major arteries and veins. General organization of the arteries and veins in the head and neck, in the trunk, in the limbs, and in organs. Lymphatic system: Lymphatic vessels. Lympoid organs (thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils): localization and structure. Haematopioietic and haemocateretic organs. · Digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, endocrine systems: general morphology, localization, main anatomical relations, structure and morphofunctional aspects of the organs of the different systems. Ultrastructure of lung alveoli, nephron (renal corpuscle and air-blood barrier), liver (hepatocyte, biliary capillary, Disse's space), lining epithelium of the small intestine (enterocytes and microvilli). · Nervous system: General aspects of the evolution of the neural circuits and their organization. Central nervous system: Major divisions, external morphological features and internal organization of the grey matter and white matter. General organization of the central nervous system: main ascending and descending pathways, nuclei and cortical areas, cerebellum and basal ganglia. Reticular formation, limbic system, hypotalamus and control of visceral activities: general principles. Peripheral nervous system: general principles of the somatic and visceral innervation. Eye: general organization and structure. Ear: general organization and structure. Practice at the microscope: analysis and description at the light microscope of sections obtained from tissues and organs of the different systems.