The course allows the student to know the transformation technologies of the main preserved and semi-preserved fruits and vegetables, as well as the problems related to raw material, equipment operation, control of critical points and final product quality.
Choice of the most suitable equipments for the different processing lines. Evaluation of the suitability of fruit and vegetables transformation. Control of the process and actions to improve it. Control of the final products in relation to company and regulations standards.
1. Structure and production of the preserved and semi-preserved food industry. 2. Definition of preserved and semi-preserved food. 3. Food conservation by heating: the history of Nicolas Appert; pasteurisation and sterilisation; microorganisms destruction by heat; F0 and C0 concepts; 4. Food conservation by salt; effect of salt on microorganisms; use of salt and brine; 5. Food preservation by acidification; acidification with vinegar; acidification by fermentation; 6. Role of oil on preserved foods. 7. Food preservation by sugar. 9. Main operation steps of the fruits and vegetables canning industry; washing; selection; calibration; cleaning; stoning; peeling; blanching; filling of containers; canning liquid; degassing; container sealing; heat treatment; final product storage. 10. Processing. 10.1. Tomato processing; plant and fruit characteristics; harvesting and transportation; washing and selection; legislation; whole peeled tomatoes; tomato paste; tomato pulp; tomato cubes and chopped tomato; tomato juice; ketchup; tomato flakes; dried tomato juice; quality control methods. 10.2. Production of canned peas; plant characteristics; seeding scheduling; harvesting; processing; some quality control parameters. 10.3. Production of canned French beans; plant characteristics; harvesting and transportation; processing; some quality control parameters. 10.4. Pickles and fermented products; pickled onions; pickled peppers; pickled gherkins; olives processing; sauerkraut. 10.5. Canned rehydrated legumes; beans; chickpeas; lentil. 10.6. Industrial processing of citrus fruits, preliminary operations; juice and essential oils extraction; the essential oils; the juice. 10.7. Canned syrup fruits; legislation; canning liquid; syrup peaches; syrup pears; syrup cherries.
Carlo Pompei - La trasformazione industriale di frutta e ortaggi. Edagricole-Il sole 24 ore. Bologna. 2005. Appunti e diapositive proiettate a lezione.