Biopharmacology methods and Toxicology

A.Y. 2015/2016
Overall hours
BIO/13 BIO/14
Learning objectives
Expected learning outcomes
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Course syllabus
Principles of toxicology and pharmacogenetics (4 hours).
Genetic toxicology (2 hours).
Carcinogenesis (2 hours).
Developmental toxicology (2 hours).
Experimental protocols for toxicology studies/Use of genetically modified models in toxicology (2 hours).
Organ toxicity (liver, nervous system, skin, respiratory system) (6 hours).
Food toxicology (2 hours).
Potential toxicity/side effects of biopharmaceuticals (10 hours).
Genetically modified plants: toxicological risks (2 hours).

The teacher provides power point files summarizing each lesson. The files have to be integrated with student's notes and scientific articles suggested by the teacher.
Reference text:
Casarett & Doull's. Toxicology, McGraw-Hill.

The students are asked to write the answer to four open questions on the topics discussed during the course. The exam is passed if the students provide sufficient answers to three out of the four questions.
Pharmacology methods
Course syllabus
R & D of new drugs. Research phases: pre-clinical, clinical (Phases I-IV).
It is addressed the path that leads from the initial study to the availability of a new drug, pointing to the phases of preclinical and clinical trials.

Search through databases of bibliographic sources.
The student is informed about how to search the literature using the databases accessible through the University of Milan.

Generation of genetically modified animals.
The methods used (gene transfer and gene targeting) for the production of transgenic mammals to be used as models of disease and / or to study the effect of drugs are discussed.

Generation and use of antibodies (immunohistochemistry, Elisa, WB, flow cytometry, etc.).
Methodological aspects of the techniques for the generation of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and their diagnostic and therapeutic use are discussed.

Methods for the study of platelet function.
The traditional and newer methods, including those using "point of care" systems, for the assessment of platelet function and the effect of antiplatelet agents are discussed.

Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics.
The objectives of these branches of science, the methodologies they use, the problem of variability in individual response to a drug (analysis of SNPs) are discussed.

Proteome analysis: clinical and pharmacological aspects.
The student is informed of the main methods used for extraction of biological material, for the analysis of the proteome by two-dimensional separation techniques, mass spectrometry, MALDI and ESI sources.

Molecular basis for personalized therapies.
The student is informed about the new methods available for the identification of molecular targets (targets for therapies, biomarkers, genetic testing, etc ...) such as microarrays, LCM, etc.. It also brought examples of molecular targeted drugs.

Use of databases of molecular biology to the design of primers for PCR reactions.
Methods for evaluation of platelet function by antithrombotic drugs.
Cell Culture Methods
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 3
Single bench laboratory practical: 16 hours
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Rusmini Paola
Pharmacology methods
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 3
Single bench laboratory practical: 16 hours
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Camera Marina
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 32 hours
Monday, 11.00-12.00
Via Balzaretti, 9