Elements of human anatomy, pharmacology and immunology

A.Y. 2015/2016
9
Max ECTS
72
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/14 BIO/16 MED/04
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The Anatomy unit of the course aims to offer to the students the basic knowledges on the organization and structure of the human body at the macroscopic, and ultrastructural level. The immunology unit has the goal to give basic information on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of immunity and brief information on some pathological conditions such as autoimmunity. The Pharmacology unit will present the drug as an exogenous substance interacting with the organism and behave as a therapeutic or toxic agent,m or be used as an investigational tool. The course offers to the student a versatile multidiciplinary instrument useful in different aspects of biology.
Expected learning outcomes
Undefined
Course syllabus and organization

A-L

Lesson period
First semester
Course syllabus
Elements of Human Anatomy
- Organization of the human body. Systems and organs: definition and overview of their composition and localization.
- The locomotor system.
- The digestive system. Overview of mouth, pharinx and esophagus. Morphology and structure of stomach, small and large intestine, liver and pancreas.
- The respiratory system. Overview of the airways. Morphology and structure of the lungs.
- The cardiovascular system. Morphology and structure of the heart. Blood vessel classification and structure.
- The lymphatic system. Morphofunctional characteristics of lymphatic and hematopoietic organs.
- The urinary system. Morphology and structure of the kidneys. Overview of transportation and elimination of urine.
- The endocrine system. Overview and morphofunctional characteristics of endocrine glands.
- The nervous system.

Immunology
Introduction to the immune system: the cells, the lymphoid tissue, the cytokines.
Innate and acquired immunity. Elements of innate immunity. Phagocytes, complement system, barriers.
Cell mediated immune response. The development of T and B lymphocytes. Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes. Antigen recognition by T and B lymphocytes. T and B cell receptors. The development of lymphocyte repertoire. Major histocompatibility complex, functional role and diversity.
The structure of antibodies. Diversity in the humoral immune response.
Mechanism of action of the antibodies. The complement system. Autoimmunity. Tumor and immunity: a brief description.

Pharmacology
The way of a drug from entering the body to its exit will be illustrated (Absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) in relation to its characteristics and those of the subjects assuming them (pharmacogenetics). Concept of dose-response, theapeutic index, descriptive pharmacokinetics.
the main knowledges on drugs mechanisms of action (pharmacodynamics), possible targets and drug-drug interactions.
Some examples of drug use in specific diseases will be discussed as an example.



Reference material
Saladin, Anatomia Umana, Ed. Piccin, 2011
McKinley, O'Loughlin, Anatomia umana, Ed. Piccin, 2014
Martini, Timmons, Tallitsch, Anatomia Umana, EdiSES 2004
Ambrosi et al., Anatomia dell'Uomo, edi-ermes, 2008
Rang, Farmacologia
Panerai, Farmacologia generale, Raffaello Cortina editore
AK Abbas e AH Lichtman, Immunologia di base or (same authors) Fondamenti di immunologia, Elsevier


Final examination
1. Oral and/or written (see below)
2. Further details if needed will be given during the course or published on Ariel

Prerequisites
Cytology, histology, general physiology, biochemistry

Teaching: frontal lessons and seminars on specific topics
Power point presentations

Language
Italian

Other informations and didactic material
Human anatomy: Ariel Anatomia umana name of teacher
Pharmacology: Ariel: http: //apaneraif.ariel.ctu.unimi.it/
Immunology: Ariel: http://users.unimi.it/minucci/didattica.htm
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 0
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 0
MED/04 - EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 72 hours

M-Z

Lesson period
First semester
Course syllabus
Apparata: general composition and localization.
- Locomotory apparatus. Morphological and functional overview of the locomotory apparatus in relation to some key human adaptations (bipedalism, adaptation of upper limb for grasping and manipulation).
- Digestive system. Overview of the cephalic intestine (buccal cavity, pharynx and oesophagus). Morphology and structure of stomach, liver and pancreas.
- Respiratory system. Generality of the respiratory tract. Lungs: general morphology, architecture and structure.
- Circulatory system. Heart morphology and structure. Classification and structure of vessels. Morphofunctional overview of lymphatic system, haemopoietic and haemocatheretic organs.
- Urinary system. Kidney: general morphology, architecture and structure. Generality of the urinary tracts.
- Endocrine system. Endocrine apparatus organization and endocrine glands morphofunctional characteristics.

Immunology
Introduction to the immune system: the cells, the lymphatics, the cytokines.
Innate and acquired immunity. Elements of innate immunity. Phagocytes, complement system, barriers.
Cell mediated immune response. The development of T and B lymphocytes. Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes. Antigen recognition by T and B lymphocytes. T and B cell receptors. The development of lymphocyte repertoire. Major histocompatibility complex, functional role and diversity.
The structure of antibodies. Diversity in the humoral immune response.
Mechanism of action of the antibodies. The complement system. Autoimmunity. Tumor and immunity: a brief description.

Pharmacology
Pharmacokinetic: Absorption, distribution, metabolism (biotransformation) and elimination of a drug. Factors affecting pharmcokinetics.
Concepts of dose-response, therapeuthic index, qualitative and quantitative pharmacokinetic.
Mechanisms of drug action: pharmacodynamic. Drug targets and receptors. Drug-drug interactions.
Pharmacogenomics for individualized therapies.
Examples of drug treatment for specific diseases.


Reference Material
Saladin, Anatomia Umana, Ed. Piccin
Martini, Timmons, Tallitsch, Anatomia Umana, EdiSES
Ambrosi et al., Anatomia dell'Uomo, edi-ermes
Rang, Farmacologia
Panerai, Farmacologia generale, Raffaello Cortina editore
AK Abbas e AH Lichtman, Fondamenti di immunologia, Masson Elsevier 2006

Prerequisites and examination procedures
Exams.
Anatomy: written ( short answer questions) and oral
Pharmacology: written, multiple choice questions
Immunology: written, with short answer questions

Recommended Prerequisites
See manifesto degli Studi


Teaching Methods
Traditional Lessons with power point slides.

Language of instruction
Italian


Program information
Program is given in the first lesson.
See website of each teacher for details.

WEB Page
ELEMENTI DI ANATOMIA UMANA: sito ARIEL docente di riferimento
FARMACOLOGIA: / Ariel: http://apaneraif.ariel.ctu.unimi.it/
Immunologia: sito Ariel Immunologia (J-Z) http://ariel.unimi.it/User/Default.aspx
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 0
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 0
MED/04 - EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 72 hours
Professors: La Porta Caterina, Pasini Maria Enrica, Sacerdote Paola Giuseppina
Educational website(s)
Professor(s)
Reception:
upon appointment by e-mail
Dept. of BioSciences, B tower, 6th floor
Reception:
Every Monday, hours to be agreed by email
Teams Platform
Reception:
by appointment
university building via vanvitelli 32
Reception:
Monday, 14.30-16.30; Thursday, 14.30-15.30
via Vanvitelli 32