General pathology Cellular and tissue responses to stress. Processes of cell death: necrosis and apoptosis. Degenerative processes of accumulation. Biological and physical barriers of innate immunity. Origin and function of cells of the innate immunity. The endothelium and leukocyte recruitment. Mechanisms of pathogen recognition: TLR structure and signalling properties. Mechanisms of pathogen killing: phagocytosis and reactive oxygen intermediates. Soluble mediators of innate immunity. The complement system. Chronic inflammation. Tissue repair and granulation. Fibrosis and sclerosis. Pathogenesis and risk factors of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis: mechanisms of plaque generation and complications. The coagulation cascade. Pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of bleeding disorders. Pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of thrombotic diseases.
Principles of immunology and immunopathology Features of acquired immune response: specificity, memory, tolerance. Primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. Antigen-presenting cells. Antigen processing and presentation. Structure and function of major histocompatibility complex class I and II. Intrathymic development: negative and positive selection. Generation, structure and signal transduction of the TCR. Differentiation, activation and maturation of cytotoxic and helper T lymphocytes. Differentiation, activation and maturation of B lymphocytes. Generation, structure and signal transduction of the BCR. Structure and biological properties of antibodies. Failure mechanisms of central and peripheral tolerance. Congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies. Hypersensitivity reactions (I, II, III and IV type). Tolerance and rejection of organ transplants.
Program Principles of Oncology Classification of tumors. Tumor cell biology. Cancer and cell cycle deregulation. Chemical, physical and viral carcinogens.. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes involved in apoptosis. Genes that maintain the integrity of the genome. Epigenetic alterations in cancer. Telomerase activity and erosion of telomeres. Tumor microenvironment: extracellular matrix and angiogenesis. Mechanism of invasion and metastasis. Immunology of cancer.