PETROLOGY AND LABORATORY
Principles of phase petrology:
I) Composition Space: barycentric coordinates, choice of components, units of quantity (mass, atoms, oxygens, cations, oxides units), conservative and non-conservative units. Transformation of coordinate axes: projection into AFM diagram; determination of mineral in terms of end members; mass balance
II) Phase diagrams and phase equilibria: Lever rule, Phase Rule, Binary and ternary phase diagrams (complete and partial solid solutions, complete immiscibility, solvus, eutectic, peritectic and intermediate compounds); Equilibrium thermodynamics of heterogeneous and homogeneous systems, thermodynamic properties of solid solutions, Gibbs stability criterion and Gibbs Free energy, G-x, -X, T-X, P-T-X diagrams, pseudosections and Screinemakers diagrams, Schreinemakers' rules.
III) Chemical kinetics: reaction rates, diffusion, crystal nucleation and growth.
Petrology applied to natural and synthetic materials
Naural materials: Marble; granite; other stone materials - definitions.
Outline of commercial names. Geology and reserves. Evaluation of the quality of stone materials. Exploitation technologies and production cycle in quarries.. Special technologies. Applications and employments: cover systems, flooring and paving, street furniture.
Metamorphic processes: Calculations of metamorphic phase equilibria, the P-T-X-M phase relations, the use of thermodynamic calculators: programs and databases; Geothermobarometry: exchange reactions, solvus relations, net transfer reactions, examples: garnet-biotite, garnet-olivine, Fe-Ti Oxides, muscovite-paragonite, feldspars, "GASP", ).
Experimental methods devoted to the transformation of minerals, rocks and ceramic analogues. Process variables: temperature, pressure, partial pressure of gaseous species, time, properties of raw materials and starting mixtures. Processes and facilities for engineering of geomaterials and ceramic analogues. Synthesis and sintering at environmental and high pressure. Technological properties of construction (dimensional) stones and ceramic analogues. Certificates and standards: the role of national and international institutes.
Phase relationships and natural vs. synthetic materials in the diagram Al2O3-SiO2 (use and properties of pyrophyllite, andalusite, kaolin, mullite, corundum, etc.); Phase relationships in the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (steatite, cordierite, forsterite, spinels). Phase relationships and natural vs. synthetic materials in the diagram CaO-Al2O3-SiO2: the usage of carbonatic rocks in cements, in metallurgy, and in ceramic applications. Concretes.
Quantitative textural analysis of rocks and ceramic materials. Relations with physical properties. Transformation-Time-Temperature diagrams. Inter- and intracrystalline deformation. Creep in natural and synthetic materials. Creep textures. Fracturing and toughening.
Practicals:.application of linear algebra to petrological problems; chemical analysis of minerals: from microprobe analysis to graphical representation of results; calculations of phase diagrams. Practicing in laboratories and trips to industry, quarries and outcrops of petrologia interest are programmed.