Molecular tools for the study of Vertebrate evolution. Evolution of basal Vertebrates. Myxiniformes and Petromyzontiformes. Evolution of Gnathostoma. Chondrichthyes: morphology and phylogeny. Osteichthyes. Biomechanics and swimming performance. Reproductive strategies in Elasmobranchs and Osteichthyes. Phylogeny and evolution of Actinopterygii. Sarcopterygii and the transition toward Tetrapoda. Amphibians: morphology, locomotion, reproductive strategies. Amphibians of the Italian fauna. Reptiles. Temperature-dependent sex determination. Phylogeny of reptiles, and the diversity of Italian fauna. Endotherms vs. ectotherms: comparison of strategies. Birds and the bio-mechanics of flight. Mammals: morphology and evolution. The orders of mammals, and the diversity of Italian species. Tools for the management of vertebrates. Environmental regulation, habitat directive and bird directive. Planning of reserves for the management of vertebrate populations. Translocation of vertebrates: introduction, supplementation, reintroduction. Captive breeding for species conservation. Techniques for the census of vertebrates.