Advanced microscopic techniques and nanotechnology

A.Y. 2016/2017
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course is meant to be an introduction for students to all the different and biotechnologically relevant techniques that requires a particular knowledge of their physical, computational and technological basis.

The course is then designed so that, starting from the introduction of some scientifically and technological fundamental concepts, it shows the working principle and the aim of different and relevant technologies.

The topics included in the course can be divided in three main parts.
Expected learning outcomes
In this class the student: (i) learns about the physical quantities of importance in the field of Biotechnologies, with a specific emphasis on thermodynamic quantities, and about their units of measurements; (ii) learns to use such quantities in quantitative problems; (iii) learns about the physical and technological foundations of optical microscopy and fluorescence.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First trimester
Course syllabus
Introduction on the resolution of optical microscopes
Effects of the finite resolution on images
Introduction to confocal microscopy
Optical processes and techniques that can overcome the resolution limit, such as: non linear microscopy, STED,TIRF,PALM, SNOM.

introduction to nanotechnology
Nanoparticles:quantum dots, nanomag, metallic nanoparticles. General concepts, stability and bioconiugation. Optical tweezers for micro-manipulation
Microfluidics: miniaturization of lab apparatus (Lab-on-a-chip technologies), microfluidic technologies based on flux and droplets. Diffusion and mixing. Notable examples of micro-mechanicals applications.
Atomic force microscopy
Later-free optical Biosensors for the detection of not marked molecules and interactions between not marked molecules. Introduction to SPR based techniques and to methods that use guided light.

Introduction to the fundamentals of computer graphics aimed to the comprehension of the informations contained in images with examples taken from microscopy, gel electrophoresis and medical diagnostic.
Colorimetry: color spectrum, Gamut, chromatic coordinates, gamma value of displays, RGB, CMYK.
Digital image types: (es. BMP,TIF,GIF,JPG)
Lossy and lossless compression
Images stacks over space (3D stacks) and time (movies). Movie file types.
Volumes and surface renderings. Tomography.
Introduction to ImageJ software as a tool to:
- extract quantitative information from an image (measurement of bands on a gel electrophoresis image, particle counting, border detection)
- Punctual, local and global filtering
- False color images applied to multi-fluorescence detection.
- Stack visualization and reslicing
- Timelapse and measurements on images over time
FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 6
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 35 hours