Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

A.Y. 2016/2017
9
Max ECTS
88
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/10
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Gli obiettivi del corso sono: (1) fornire le conoscenze necessarie alla comprensione della struttura e della funzione delle principali biomolecole costituenti gli organismi viventi; (2) descrivere i principali processi biologici presenti nelle cellule animali, con particolare riferimento a quelli coinvolti nel metabolismo delle molecole di origine alimentare; (3) fornire conoscenze necessarie alla comprensione del ruolo e della funzione delle macromolecole informazionali e delle principali metodologie di base inerenti la tecnologia del DNA ricombinante; (4) fornire le nozioni teorico-pratiche necessarie per la esecuzione pratica di semplici saggi colorimetrici.
Expected learning outcomes
Undefined
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
ATTENDING STUDENTS
Modulo: Propedeutica biochimica
Course syllabus
Theoretical teaching (16 hours)
Organic nomenclature and main organic chemistry reactions of biological relevance of the following compounds (4 hours):
Hydrocarbons, alcohols and tioalcohols, amines, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, hemiacetal and acetals. Carboxylic acids and their derivatives. Phosphoesters and mixed phosphoanhydrides
Sterechemistry: (2 hours) conformations, geometric stereoisomers ( cis/trans), optical stereoisomers ( D/L)
Propedeutical Biochemistry: Carbohydrates (3 hours)
Aldoses and ketoses. D and L series. Monosaccharides: Haworth and conformational forms. Anomers and epimers. O- and N- glycosidic bonds. Reducing and non reducing disaccharides. Polysaccharides

Propedeutical Biochemistry: Amino acids and Proteins (3 hours)
Proteic and non-proteic amino acids. Properties of free amino acids. Classification of proteic amino acids based on chemical properties of side chains. Essential and non-essential amino acids. Peptide bond, peptides and poly-peptides. Proteins. Amino acid composition of proteins and complex biological matrices including food

Propedeutical Biochemistry: Lipids (2 hours)
Fatty acids. Omega-9, -6, -3 unsaturated fatty acids. Triacylglycerols. Phospholipids. Cholesterol. Idrophobicity, amphypatic molecules, tensioactives

Propedeutical Biochemistry: Nuicleotides (2 hours)
Purinic and pyrimidinic bases, nucleosides and nucleotides. Polynucleotides. Non-nucleic acid constituing nucleotides

Practical training (16 hours)
-Exercises on organic nomenclature and mai organic reaction of biochemical relevance (6 hours)
-Exercises on the assignment of oxidation number of C atoms in organic compounds and redox reactions (3 hours)
-Stereochemistry of organic compounds using molecular models (3 hours)
-Seminar on the three dimensional structure of proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins and their effects on biological activity (4 hours)
Modulo: Biochimica strutturale
Course syllabus
1. Biological membranes
· Structure and function of membranes
· Transport across membranes

2. Oxygen-transporting proteins
· Myoglobin
· Hemoglobin

3. Mechanisms of regulation of enzyme activity
· Enzyme kinetics
· Activation of zymogens
· Kinases and phosphatases
· Reversible and irreversible inhibitors
· Allosteric enzymes

4. Molecular biology
· Structure and function of nucleic acids
· The genetic code
· DNA replication
· Transcription and post-transcriptional modifications
· Protein synthesis and post-translational modifications


5. Overview of molecular mechanisms of hormone action
· Signal transduction
· Control of gene expression

6. Molecular mechanisms of digestion, absorption and transport of the main nutritionally relevant classes of compounds
Modulo: Biochimica metabolica
Course syllabus
1. Overview of metabolism of nutritionally relevant compounds and bioenergetics

2. Metabolism of carbohydrates
· Glycolysis
· Pentose phosphate pathway
· Metabolism of glycogen
· Gluoconeogenesis
· Biosynthesis of lactose

3. Metabolism of lipids
· Metabolism of fatty acids
· Metabolism of ketone bodies
· Overview of metabolism of triacylglycerols, phosphoglycerids and sfingolipids
· Overview of metabolism of cholesterol and steroids

4. Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation

5. Metabolism of amino acids
· Amino acid degradation and the urea cycle
· Overview of nitrogen fixation and amino acid biosynthesis

6. Overview of metabolism of nucleotides with emphasis on disease-related aspects

7. Integration of metabolism and overview of hormonal control of metabolism

8. Seminar on anaerobic metabolism, fermentation and rumen metabolism

9. Quantitative bioenergetics: exercises on biochemical calculations related to energy production and consumption under physiological conditions

10. Theory and practice of spectrophotometrical determination of enzymatic activity and kinetics parameters and relative calculation and graphical presentation of results

11. Determination of enzymatic activity by detection of pH variation

12. Spectrophotometric determination of biological compounds

13. Seminar: genome, transcriptome, proteome
NON-ATTENDING STUDENTS
Modulo: Propedeutica biochimica
Course syllabus
Theoretical teaching (16 hours)
Organic nomenclature and main organic chemistry reactions of biological relevance of the following compounds (4 hours):
Hydrocarbons, alcohols and tioalcohols, amines, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, hemiacetal and acetals. Carboxylic acids and their derivatives. Phosphoesters and mixed phosphoanhydrides
Sterechemistry: (2 hours) conformations, geometric stereoisomers ( cis/trans), optical stereoisomers ( D/L)
Propedeutical Biochemistry: Carbohydrates (3 hours)
Aldoses and ketoses. D and L series. Monosaccharides: Haworth and conformational forms. Anomers and epimers. O- and N- glycosidic bonds. Reducing and non reducing disaccharides. Polysaccharides

Propedeutical Biochemistry: Amino acids and Proteins (3 hours)
Proteic and non-proteic amino acids. Properties of free amino acids. Classification of proteic amino acids based on chemical properties of side chains. Essential and non-essential amino acids. Peptide bond, peptides and poly-peptides. Proteins. Amino acid composition of proteins and complex biological matrices including food

Propedeutical Biochemistry: Lipids (2 hours)
Fatty acids. Omega-9, -6, -3 unsaturated fatty acids. Triacylglycerols. Phospholipids. Cholesterol. Idrophobicity, amphypatic molecules, tensioactives

Propedeutical Biochemistry: Nuicleotides (2 hours)
Purinic and pyrimidinic bases, nucleosides and nucleotides. Polynucleotides. Non-nucleic acid constituing nucleotides

Practical training (16 hours)
-Exercises on organic nomenclature and mai organic reaction of biochemical relevance (6 hours)
-Exercises on the assignment of oxidation number of C atoms in organic compounds and redox reactions (3 hours)
-Stereochemistry of organic compounds using molecular models (3 hours)
-Seminar on the three dimensional structure of proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins and their effects on biological activity (4 hours)
Modulo: Biochimica strutturale
Course syllabus
1. Biological membranes
· Structure and function of membranes
· Transport across membranes

2. Oxygen-transporting proteins
· Myoglobin
· Hemoglobin

3. Mechanisms of regulation of enzyme activity
· Enzyme kinetics
· Activation of zymogens
· Kinases and phosphatases
· Reversible and irreversible inhibitors
· Allosteric enzymes

4. Molecular biology
· Structure and function of nucleic acids
· The genetic code
· DNA replication
· Transcription and post-transcriptional modifications
· Protein synthesis and post-translational modifications


5. Overview of molecular mechanisms of hormone action
· Signal transduction
· Control of gene expression

6. Molecular mechanisms of digestion, absorption and transport of the main nutritionally relevant classes of compounds
Modulo: Biochimica metabolica
Course syllabus
1. Overview of metabolism of nutritionally relevant compounds and bioenergetics

2. Metabolism of carbohydrates
· Glycolysis
· Pentose phosphate pathway
· Metabolism of glycogen
· Gluoconeogenesis
· Biosynthesis of lactose

3. Metabolism of lipids
· Metabolism of fatty acids
· Metabolism of ketone bodies
· Overview of metabolism of triacylglycerols, phosphoglycerids and sfingolipids
· Overview of metabolism of cholesterol and steroids

4. Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation

5. Metabolism of amino acids
· Amino acid degradation and the urea cycle
· Overview of nitrogen fixation and amino acid biosynthesis

6. Overview of metabolism of nucleotides with emphasis on disease-related aspects

7. Integration of metabolism and overview of hormonal control of metabolism

8. Seminar on anaerobic metabolism, fermentation and rumen metabolism

9. Quantitative bioenergetics: exercises on biochemical calculations related to energy production and consumption under physiological conditions

10. Theory and practice of spectrophotometrical determination of enzymatic activity and kinetics parameters and relative calculation and graphical presentation of results

11. Determination of enzymatic activity by detection of pH variation

12. Spectrophotometric determination of biological compounds

13. Seminar: genome, transcriptome, proteome
Modulo: Biochimica metabolica
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 3
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Negri Armando
Shifts:
Professor: Negri Armando
Attività esercitative ripetute a gruppi di studenti
Professor: Negri Armando
Modulo: Biochimica strutturale
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Negri Armando
Modulo: Propedeutica biochimica
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 3
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Negri Armando
Professor(s)