Geological Mapping and fieldwork practicals

A.Y. 2016/2017
9
Max ECTS
139
Overall hours
SSD
GEO/02 GEO/03 GEO/07 GEO/09
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The Class in Geological Mapping and Fieldwork Practice aims to prepare to the methods and techniques of geological mapping, interpretation of geological maps and elaboration of geological cross-sections and geological reports. Class (6 cfu) and field (3cfu) practice exercises are tightly integrated with theory lessons.
Expected learning outcomes
Ability to: observe, describe, classify and map rock units in the field; observe, describe, measure and map the primary and acquired fabrics (tectonic structures) of rock units; observe, describe and classify geomorphologies; read and interpret geological maps; derive 2-D cross sections and 3- to 4-D reconstructions of geological geometry and evolution of from the geological map of a study area; to elaborate and write a geological report.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
Unita' didattica: Laboratori di Terreno
Course syllabus
GEOLOGICAL MAPPING AND FIELDWORK PRACTICALS

The Laboratory activity includes 4 field-work stages, during the three years of the Undergraduate Course in Geological Sciences. The activities are planned as follows.

1) First Year activities:
a - Introductory field trip (1 cfu), aiming to introduce the Students to geological field-work (basic geomorphological, lithological and geological observations)
b - Geological Mapping stage (2 cfu). The Geological Mapping Stage is a 5 days field-work session that is held during summer, after the end of the first year lectures of the undergraduate Course in Geological Sciences. The goals are: i) introduction to observation, description, and interpretation of geological and geomorphological surface features directly in the field, ii) introduction to methods for data collection and management, and iii) first approach to geological mapping. Study Sites and Teachers can vary from year to year. The stage organisation is illustrated to the participants before the end of the first year lectures.

2) Second Year activities:
Geological Mapping stage (2 cfu). This stage is programmed as a field mapping training course over 5 full days, followed by a lab class of one day, devoted to data treatment and to map completion. We illustrate multidisciplinary approaches to the characterization of both rocky substrate and shallow deposits. Macroscopic analysis of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks is integrated in the regional frame of south Adamello intrusion in the sedimentary sequence of Southern Alps.

3) Third Year activities:
Geological Mapping stage (3 cfu). This stage concludes the compulsory cycle of practical training on geological field-work, aiming to promote the achievement of autonomy in geological mapping, data elaboration (geological map and sections, geological evolution) and applications. The stage will be led by different Teachers, presumably during the months of June or July, in different regions of the Alps and/or the Apennines, that share very high geological and didactical values.
Unita' didattica: Carte e Sezioni Geologiche
Course syllabus
GEOLOGICAL MAPPING AND FIELDWORK PRACTICALS

Module: Geological maps and cross-sections (6 cfu, classroom lectures and practice exercises)
Lectures

1) Introductory notes on contents, scale and types of geological maps
2) Using the geological map and other specific maps;
3) Geological maps as deduced from outcrops and fair copy maps
4) Law aspects and technical report writing
5) Key to map tools: legend (types, meaning, how it is constructed, etc.), schemes (stratigraphy, structure, etc.), geological cross-sections
6) Computerized maps and GIS (Geographic Information System)
7) Mapping Methodology:
· Sedimentary environments and rocks
· Crystalline basements and rocks
· Intrusive and Volcanic environments and rocks
· Continental Quaternary sediments and rocks

Practice exercises

1) Using the tools of Geological maps/specific maps (e.g., legend, schemes, morphology, symbols)
2) Understanding the geometry (attitude, true dip and apparent dip, thickness, shape) of geologic objects
3) Overlapping and juxtaposition relationships, heteropy
4) Understanding cross-cutting relations: unconformities, dykes, faults, folds
5) Understanding the tectonic structures and structural styles (fold and fault systems, their associations, local vs. regional structural elements, their continuity and geometry)
6) Chronological relations between geologic objects and their geologic evolution
7) Geologic cross-sections:
· Introduction, simple structures, horizontal and vertical scales
· Continuity, discontinuity, intersection, overlapping relations
· Geologic cross-section in regions with simple folding pattern
· Geologic cross-section in folded and faulted geological settings
· Geologic cross-sections in regions affected by polyphase deformation
8) Writing of the technical report on the geological map and cross-section.

Didactic Unit: Fieldwork Practice (3 cfu, fieldwork)
This unit includes the Geological Mapping Stage (compulsory, 7 days in the field) and 2 compulsory single-day Field Trips (total amount of 9 field-work days, 3 cfu).
During the Geological Mapping Stage (to be held every year in the last 10 days of September), different groups of Students will be led by the Teachers of the Geological mapping Course, with the help some additional Colleagues, to make the geological survey of a small territory.
This stage aims to promote the achievement of autonomy in geological mapping, data elaboration (geological map and sections, geological report, map explanatory notes) and applications.
The Field Trips (compulsory, 2 single-days) lead the whole class of Students to compare the map representation of geology with the real world geology, directly on site. The main aims are to refine the comprehension of the geological architectures in the field and on the correlative geological maps and to promote the understanding of the scale effects on the representation of geology on a map.
Unita' didattica: Carte e Sezioni Geologiche
GEO/02 - STRATIGRAPHY AND SEDIMENTOLOGY - University credits: 0
GEO/03 - STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY - University credits: 0
GEO/07 - PETROLOGY AND PETROGRAPHY - University credits: 0
GEO/09 - MINING RESOURCES, MINERALOGIC AND PETROGRAPHIC APPLICATIONS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE - University credits: 0
Practicals: 48 hours
Lessons: 16 hours
Unita' didattica: Laboratori di Terreno
GEO/02 - STRATIGRAPHY AND SEDIMENTOLOGY - University credits: 0
GEO/03 - STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY - University credits: 0
GEO/07 - PETROLOGY AND PETROGRAPHY - University credits: 0
GEO/09 - MINING RESOURCES, MINERALOGIC AND PETROGRAPHIC APPLICATIONS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE - University credits: 0
Field activity: 75 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
Thursday h: 15-17; Friday h: 10-12
Teacher's Office, via Mangiagalli, 34