The main objectives of the course are to provide the principles of magmatism and metamorphism, and to provide the basis for the recognition and classification of igneous and metamorphic rocks using textural and mineralogical parameters at the macroscopic scale on hand samples.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student should know the principles of petrogenesis of igneous and metamorphic rocks and recognize hand samples of the main lithologies.
Petrogenesis: Composition and physical properties of the solid Earth. Pressure and temperature distribution within the Earth. General outline of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Igneous petrology. Classification of igneous rocks. Chemical and physical characters of the magma: density, temperature, viscosity and volatile content. Effusive and intrusive igneous bodies. Introduction to thermodynamics. Binary and ternary phase diagrams. Equilibrium versus fractional crystallization and melting in silicatic systems. Geochemistry of major, trace elements and isotopes. Origin and evolution of magma. Magmatic series and geodynamic environment. Metamorphic petrology. Metamorphic processes; temperature, pressure, deformation; the role of fluids. The protoliths of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic grade and metamorphic facies. Types of metamorphism and geodynamic environment. Metamorphic transformations: metamorphic reactions and textural transformations. Classification of metamorphic rocks.
Practicals: Identification of major igneous and metamorphic rocks at the macroscale (hand samples)