Animal and plant biology

A.Y. 2017/2018
Overall hours
BIO/03 BIO/05
Learning objectives
Knowledge of the basic principles regarding chemical and biological
characteristics of living organisms, particularly regarding plant
organisms. Knowledge of the morpho-functional characteristics of
plant organisms.Aims:
to show how the form, function and behaviour of animals become adapted to the environment through evolution;
to prepare students for the courses that require knowledge of animal biology at the systems and organismal levels.
Expected learning outcomes
Managing plants on the basis of the knowledge of their morpho-
functional organization, with the ability to recognize and distinguish
plants on the basis of the complexity of their structure and
organization. Capacity of grouping and classifying plants on the
basis of the main plant Taxonomy criteria.At the end of the course students should:
have developed knowledge of the major ideas in cell biology, animal biology and developmental biology;

be able to assess the scope of animal biology and be able to select particular areas for further study;
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Plant biology
Course syllabus
The main features of living organisms: - General characteristics
of living organisms. ¿ Biological diversity. - The origin of life. -
Autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. - Role of plants in the
biosphere. The chemical basis of life: - The chemical-physical
characteristics of water molecules - Carbohydrates: structure,
functions, role in cells ¿ Structural and storage
polysaccharides. Lignin -Lipids: structure, functions, role in cells
- Terpenes and essential oils - Lipids and biological membranes
¿ Amino acids and protein structure - Functional characteristics
of proteins and notions regarding enzyme catalysis -
Nucleotides and nucleic acids: structure, functions, role in cells
- Morphofunctional organization of plant cells: - General
organization of cells: prokaryotes and eukaryotes - Plant and
animal cells - Biological membranes: structure and function -
subdivision and transport - Plasma membrane: the lipid and
protein component - Cytoplasm and cytoskeleton: microtubules
and microfilaments - Endomembrane system: endoplasmic
reticulum - Golgi Apparatus, ribosomes, peroxisomes,
lysosomes - cell organelles and endosymbiotic theory -
Mitochondria: structure and functions - Plastids: Genesis and
types of plastids - Chloroplast: structure and functions - Cell
wall: genesis, structure and functions - Vacuole: genesis,
structure and functions - Osmosis, plasmolisis, relaxation -
Nucleus: structure and functions Transmission of genetic
information ¿ DNA replication and transcription ¿ Genetic code
- Protein synthesis - Cell cycle: mitosis and cytodieresis -
Meiosis, genotype, phenotype - Mendelian genetics, F1 and F2,
test cross - Mutations, ploidy in cultivated plants - Notions of
molecular biology methodology - Examples of genetically
modified plants - Structural and functional organization of
plants: -General organization of plants - Plant tissues:
meristematic and adult ¿ Root apex and anatomy of the
primary root ¿ Shoot apex and anatomy of primary shoot
structure - Structure and secondary growth - structure of
annual rings: omoxilo and eteroxilo wood - The leaf: formation,
connection to the stem, structure ¿ The flower: formation and
organography ¿ Micro- and macrosporogenesis, micro- and
macrogametogenesis - Fertilization and formation of the seed
and the fruit - Types of seeds and fruits - Seed structure,
germination and formation of seedlings - Harmonic growth and
physical and chemical mediators - Introduction to systematic
Botany: Taxa and nomenclature; taxonomic systems.
Metagenetic cycles in algae, fungi, bryophytes, pteridophytes,
spermatophytes. Introduction to plant diversity: thallus and
corm. Eukaryotic algae: general information, morphology,
organization, reproduction and cycles. Systematics:
Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta, Chrysophyta, Euglenophyta,
Clorophyta, Charophyta. ¿ Emancipation of plants from the
aquatic environment - Terrestrial plants: general taxonomics. ¿
Embryophytes: differences between bryophytes and
tracheophytes ¿ Bryophyta: general information, morphology,
organization, systematics reproduction and cycles ¿
Pteridophytes (vascular cryptogams): general information,
morphology and organization, reproduction and cycles of
isosporous and heterosporous pteridophytes ¿ Spermatophyta:
general characteristics; ovule and seed, pollen. ¿
Gymnosperms: general information, morphology and
organization; reproductive organs, reproduction and cycle;
Cycads, Gingkophytes, Coniferophytes and Gnetophytes. ¿
Angiosperms: general information, morphology and
organization; reproductive organs; flower, inflorescences; fruit;
reproduction and cycle; Dicots and Monocots ¿
Teaching methods
TESTI CONSIGLIATI: Biologia delle Piante Peter H. Raven, Ray
F Evert, Susan E. Eichhorn Sesta edizione (2002) Zanichelli
Biologia. La cellula W.K. Prves, D. Sadava, G.H. Orians, H.C.
Heller Zanichelli Elementi di Biologia Vegetale ¿ botanica
generale Oreste Arrigoni Casa Editrice Ambrosiana ¿ MILANO Si
consiglia di utilizzare il seguente atlante fotografico: - Speranza
A. e Calzoni G. L. Struttura delle piante per immagini,
Zanichelli, 1996. Altri testi consigliati per la consultazione: -
Pasqua G., Abbate G., Forni C. Botanica generale e diversità
vegetale. Piccin, 2008. - Mauseth J.D. Botanica. Parte generale.
II ed. it. Idelson-Gnocchi, 2006. Tavole di anatomia dei vegetali
vascolari e siti con lezioni di Botanica:
Animal biology
Course syllabus
UNIT 2: Animal Biology

Animal Cells
The nucleus and the nucleolus. Chromatin organization.
Genetic information and its expression: replication, transcript, translation, genetic code
Cytoplasm: the relationship between the structure and function of the Cytoskeleton, Endoplasmatic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus.
Mitocondris and cellular oxidations.
Cellular cycle and the mitosis.
General morphofunctional characteristics and anatomical location of the epithelial covering and glandular tissues, support connectives and trophics, skeletal, cardiac, smooth and nervous muscle.

Organization of the animals and human body, anatomical position, section plans, corporal cavities. Locomotor apparatus: Skeleton and its functions; general notions articular systems classification; general notions of the skeletal muscles.
Integumentary apparatus: skin and attached cutaneous.
Cardiovascular apparatus: general characteristics of blood and lymphatic circulation heart structure and conformation, pericardium, arteries, veins, capillaries land ymphoide organs.
Digestive apparatus: organization of the food channel anatomy.
Urinary apparatus: kidneys organization and microscopic anatomy, urinary pathways organizations.
Genital apparatus: organization and anatomy of the gonads and the masculine and female genital pathways gametogenesis.
Endocrine system. Morphofuncional characteristic of endocrine glands
Nervous system: general organization of the CNS; general notions on nerves; brainstem and cranial nerves encefalici; cerebellum; diencephalon and cerebrum.
Survey of physiological systems that regulate levels of gases, food, energy, temperature, water, and ions. Examples from invertebrates and vertebrates
Animal development from fertilization through birth.
The functional anatomy and life cycles of the major invertebrate taxa are emphasized.
A comparative survey of vertebrates, focusing on their morphology, classification, and phylogeny.
Teaching methods
Solomon, Berg, Martin. Biologia-Struttura e processi vitali negli animali. EdiSES
Eserciziario di Biologia Animale, EdiSES 2013
Animal biology
BIO/05 - ZOOLOGY - University credits: 4
Laboratories: 8 hours
Lessons: 28 hours
Professor: Scari' Giorgio
Plant biology
Field activity: 16 hours
Laboratories: 16 hours
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Giorgi Annamaria
Educational website(s)
Appointment needed
Dept of Bioscience