Biochemistry

A.Y. 2017/2018
9
Max ECTS
80
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/10
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide a basic knowledge on : (i) structure-to-function relationships among biological (macro)molecules; (ii) energy flux in the cell; (iii) mechanism of action of selected protein classes, with special emphasis on enzymes; (iv) main metabolic pathways, with special reference to their roles, logic of construction and regulation.
Expected learning outcomes
Undefined
Course syllabus and organization

A - L

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
Course syllabus
Goals
The course aims to provide a basic knowledge on : (i) structure-to-function relationships among biological (macro)molecules; (ii) energy flux in the cell; (iii) mechanism of action of selected protein classes, with special emphasis on enzymes; (iv) main metabolic pathways, with special reference to their roles, logic of construction and regulation.


Program
-Bioelements, biomolecules and macromolecules. Water as the biological solvent. Role of weak interactions and pH in macromolecular structure and function.
-Nucleic acids: structure and physico-chemical properties of nucleotides , DNA and RNA.
- Proteins: Structure and properties of amino acids. The peptide bond. Polypeptides. Protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure; domains and motifs). Solution properties of proteins. An introduction to protein purification and structural characterization.
- Protein folding. Achievement of protein 3D structure: the folding process. -
- The basics of the biochemistry of DNA replication and transcription and Protein synthesis.
- Oxygen transport proteins: structure-function relations in myoglobin and hemoglobin.
- Enzymes: principles of enzyme catalysis; cofactors and coenzymes; Stereospecificity and stereochemical control of catalysis.
- Chemical kinetics and enzyme kinetics. Transition state theory. Steady-state kinetics and meaning of kinetic paramenters. The Michaelis-Menten equation
- Inhibition and allosteric regulation of enzymes.
- Classification of biological reactions; reaction mechanisms of selected key enzymes.

- Energy changes in biological processes: free energy changes, chemical equilibria, relation between free energy change and oxidoreduction potential. Coupled reactions. Energy flux and high-energy compounds. ATP and metabolic role of phosphate transfer reactions.
- Metabolism: basic aspects of metabolic pathways and methods. Glycolysis and fermetations. The pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. The Krebs cycle. The oxidative phosphorylation. Glycogen metabolism. Gluconeogenesis. Pentose phosphate shunt. Fatty acid metabolism. Amino acids and urea metabolism.
Regulation of main metabolic pathways.



Tutorials
Front lectures, both on blackboard and through PowerPoint presentations; molecular animations and simulations will be displayed; numerical exercises.


Reference Material
- Appling, Antony-Cahill & Mathews: Biochmica, Molecole e Metabolismo (Pearson 2017)
- Nelson D.L. & Cox M.M. - Lehninger's Principles of Biochemistry, Worth Publishers
- Voet D. & Voet, J.G. - Biochemistry, Wiley & Sons.

Textbooks, reading material and complementary teaching material
Copies of the slides projected in the classroom as well as other materials will be made available through the course website on the ARIEL platform of the University of Milano (http://ariel.ctu.unimi.it). By no means these materials substitute for the lectures or a textbook. The material is made available only to registered students of the Degree Course in Biological Sciences and should not be distributed to others.


Prerequisites and examination procedures
Written examination at the end of the course, with open questions; an interim test, focusing approximately on the first half of the materials presented will be available.
Language of instruction Italian, with short summaries in English at the end of each lecture


Required Preliminary knowledge
Students must be fully proficient (i.e. they are asked to have passed the respective first year exams) in General and inorganic chemistry and in Organic chemistry; Physical-chemistry; other courses in the first year provide additional useful cultural bases.


WEB pages
http://mbolognesicb.ariel.ctu.unimi.it
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 9
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 64 hours
Professor: Bolognesi Martino

M - Z

Lesson period
First semester
Course syllabus
Objectives
The course aims to provide a basic knowledge on : (i) structure-to-function relationships among biological (macro)molecules; (ii) energy flux in the cell; (iii) mechanism of action of selected protein classes, with special emphasis on enzymes; (iv) main metabolic pathways, with special reference to their roles, logic of construction and regulation.


Program
- Bioelements, biomolecules and macromolecules. Water as the biological solvent. Role of weak interactions and pH in macromolecular structure and function.
- Nucleic acids: structure and physico-chemical properties of nucleotides , DNA and RNA.
- Proteins: Structure and properties of amino acids. The peptide bond. Polypeptides.
- Protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure; domains and motifs). Solution properties of proteins.
- An introduction to protein purification and structural characterization.
- Protein folding. Achievement of protein 3D structure: the folding process. -
- The basics of the biochemistry of DNA replication and transcription and Protein synthesis.
- Oxygen transport proteins: structure-function relations in myoglobin and hemoglobin.
- Enzymes: principles of enzyme catalysis; cofactors and coenzymes; Stereospecificity and stereochemical control of catalysis.
- Chemical kinetics and enzyme kinetics. Transition state theory. Steady-state kinetics and meaning of kinetic parameters. The Michaelis-Menten equation
- Inhibition and allosteric regulation of enzymes.
- Classification of biological reactions; reaction mechanisms of selected key enzymes.

- Energy changes in biological processes: free energy changes, chemical equilibria, relation between free energy change and oxidoreduction potential. Coupled reactions. Energy flux and high-energy compounds. ATP and metabolic role of phosphate transfer reactions.
- Metabolism: basic aspects of metabolic pathways and methods for their study.
- Glycolysis and fermentations. Gluconeogenesis. Glycogen metabolism and glycogen phosphorylase as an example of an allosterically and covalently regulated enzyme. Pentose phosphate shunt
- The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
- The Krebs cycle.
- The oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain and ATP synthesis)
- The basics of photosynthesis
- Fatty acid metabolism (beta oxidation and fatty acid biosynthesis)
- Amino acids synthesis and degradation (general principles), urea metabolism.


Reference Material
The use of the latest edition of one of the following basic biochemistry textbooks is highly recommended:
- Nelson D.L. & Cox M.M. - Lehninger's Principles of Biochemistry, Worth Publishers
- Voet D. & Voet, J.G. - Biochemistry, Wiley & Sons.
- Mathews CK, Van Holde KE, Appling DR, Anthony-Cahill DR - Biochemistry- 4th Edition (2013) Pearson



Textbooks, reading material and complementary teaching material
Copies of the slides projected in the classroom as well as other materials will be made available through the course website on the ARIEL platform of the University of Milano (http://ariel.ctu.unimi.it). By no means these materials substitute for the lectures or a textbook. The material is made available only to registered students of the Degree Course in Biological Sciences and should not be distributed to others.


Required Preliminary knowledge
Students must be fully proficient (i.e. they are asked to have passed the respective first year exams) in General and inorganic chemistry and in Organic chemistry; Physical-chemistry; other courses in the first year provide additional useful cultural bases.

Exam
The exam will consist of a written test including a combination of open-answer questions and exercises to evaluate the degree of understanding of the topics covered during the lectures.

Web Page
http://mavanonicb.ariel.ctu.unimi.it
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 9
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 64 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
Monday through Friday - previously setting the proper time
Dept. of BioSciences - Building C, 5th floor
Reception:
Monday, 1 pm -2 pm
Protein Biochemistry Unit, DSBB, Via Celoria 26, 5C