The goal of this course is to introduce the students to biochemistry by surveying the various macromolecules that constitute the cell, and direct and facilitate operational applications of biochemical concepts. The following is a brief list of the central concepts associated with this course: higher order structures (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates), protein-ligands interactions, the dynamics and regulation of the basic metabolic pathways for energy production and consumption.
Expected learning outcomes
The overall goal of this course is for the sudent to gain a fundamental working knowledge of biochemistry. Specific areas of student development include acheiving an understanding of: the relationship between the structure and function of biological molecules; the chemistry of intramolecular interactions in macromolecules; basic concepts of enzymology; regulation of metabolism.
Part I Structure, functions and interactions associated with biological molecules including water. The building blocks of macromolecules.Basic elements of protein structure, protein folding/unfolding. Protein-ligand interactions: direct functions (oxygen binding, immunoglobulins); biological catalysts (enzymes), principle of enzymology. The genetic code: from DNA to protein. Part II General aspects of metabolism, energy coupling in biochemical reactions. Carbohydrates metabolism: sequence of reactions in glycolysis, fermentation, citric acid cycle. The electron transport chain and ATP production. Glycogen synthesis and degradation, gluconeogenesis, catabolism of fatty acids and aminoacids. Integrated metabolism: general overview of the major metabolic pathways and their regulation, key metabolites, and cellular metabolic interplay.
TESTI CONSIGLIATI: INTRODUZIONE ALLA BIOCHIMICA DI LEHNINGER (Nelson/Cox, Zanichelli); BIOCHIMICA (Campbell/Farrel, EdiSES)
Contents Fundamentals of the biochemical approaches to studying process-induced modifications of food proteins: their meaning for food safety and quality. Critical analysis of methods for protein separation and recognition, their applications to defining the quality of ingredients or of foods. Chromatography and electrophoresis. Problems related to the use of enzyme assays for the quantification of enzyme activity in solid/liquid foods: selected examples. Use of combined enzymatic tests for the quantification of specific compounds in solid/liquid foods. Immunochemistry. The production of antibodies, and their use in food monitoring. Common immunochemical methods in food analysis: immunoblotting; direct, indirect, and competitive ELISA. Combination of separation and recognition techniques: applications of proteomic methods to food science. Application of molecular biology techniques to food safety issues: separation, identification, and amplification of genetic material in ingredients and foods, their significance as markers of food quality and safety. Practical labs: Determination of enzyme activity; Thermal inactivation of enzymes; Quantification of specific marker of process trough enzymatic methods; Critical analyses of results collected from immunochemical determinations.
Le diapositive presentate a lezione vengono distribuite in copia agli allievi tramite il sito ARIEL dell'insegnamento. TESTI CONSIGLIATI PER LA CONSULTAZIONE: Campbell/Farrel, Biochimica, EdiSES Duranti/Pagani, Enzimologia, Piccin Ninfa/Ballou, Metodologie di base per la biochimica e la biotecnologia, Zanichelli