Comparative anatomy

A.Y. 2017/2018
6
Max ECTS
52
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/06
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Basic concepts of vertebrate anatomy with focus on the relationship between structure and function.
Expected learning outcomes
Undefined
Course syllabus and organization

Linea unica II anno

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
Course syllabus
General characteristics of Vertebrates. Systematics of Vertebrates. Concepts of homology and analogy, temperature and salt homeostasis.

Embryonic development. Cleavage and gastrulation, extraembryonic membranes and their evolutionary significance; derivatives of three germ layers; comparative aspects of embryos at phylotypic stage

Integument. Embryonic development. Structure and phylogeny of the skin and skin derivatives.

Digestive system. Embryonic development. Phylogeny, macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and functional significance of the different tracts of the alimentary canal and its glands.

Respiratory system. Embryonic development and general phylogeny. Structure of gills and lungs in the different classes of Vertebrates.

Circulatory system. Embryonic development. Structure of the heart and vessels. Evolution of the heart and aortic arches in relation to thermoregulation and changes of the respiratory system. Outlines on the phylogeny of venous and lymphatic system. Blood. Morphology of lymphoid and myeloid organs.

Urogenital system. Embryonic development
Excretory system: functional significance of the morphology of the nephron and organization of the renal parenchyma in the various classes of Vertebrates. Outlines on the urinary tracts.
Reproductive system: microscopic anatomy of the gonads in the various classes of Vertebrates. Phylogeny and ontogeny of the genital ducts.

Endocrine glands. Structure and function of endocrine glands in the various classes of Vertebrates with indication of the embryonic origin. Relations between the nervous system and endocrine system.

Musculoskeletal system. Skeletal system: embryological origin and general plan of organization of the skull (cranium and splanchnocranium), of appendicular and axial skeleton. Muscular system: innervation and embryological derivation of the main groups of skeletal muscles with particular emphasis on the phylogeny of the branchial arch musculature.

Nervous system. Development and general plan of organization of the central and peripheral nervous system. Morphology, connections and functional significance of different parts of the central nervous system in the various classes of Vertebrates. Peripheral nervous system: spinal nerves and cranial nerves. Autonomic nervous system.

Sensory organs. Development and general plan of organization with emphasis on eye, ear and lateral line apparatus.



Reference Material
Giavini E, Menegola E.: Manuale di Anatomia Comparata, EdiSES, 2010.


Prerequisites and examination procedures
Written exam


Teaching Methods F
rontal lectures plus practicals

Language
Italian
BIO/06 - COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND CYTOLOGY - University credits: 6
Practicals: 8 hours
Lessons: 44 hours
Professor: Menegola Elena

Linea unica III anno

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
Course syllabus
General characteristics of Vertebrates. Systematics of Vertebrates. Concepts of homology and analogy, temperature and salt homeostasis.

Embryonic development. Cleavage and gastrulation, extraembryonic membranes and their evolutionary significance; derivatives of three germ layers; comparative aspects of embryos at phylotypic stage

Integument. Embryonic development. Structure and phylogeny of the skin and skin derivatives.

Digestive system. Embryonic development. Phylogeny, macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and functional significance of the different tracts of the alimentary canal and its glands.

Respiratory system. Embryonic development and general phylogeny. Structure of gills and lungs in the different classes of Vertebrates.

Circulatory system. Embryonic development. Structure of the heart and vessels. Evolution of the heart and aortic arches in relation to thermoregulation and changes of the respiratory system. Outlines on the phylogeny of venous and lymphatic system. Blood. Morphology of lymphoid and myeloid organs.

Urogenital system. Embryonic development
Excretory system: functional significance of the morphology of the nephron and organization of the renal parenchyma in the various classes of Vertebrates. Outlines on the urinary tracts.
Reproductive system: microscopic anatomy of the gonads in the various classes of Vertebrates. Phylogeny and ontogeny of the genital ducts.

Endocrine glands. Structure and function of endocrine glands in the various classes of Vertebrates with indication of the embryonic origin. Relations between the nervous system and endocrine system.

Musculoskeletal system. Skeletal system: embryological origin and general plan of organization of the skull (cranium and splanchnocranium), of appendicular and axial skeleton. Muscular system: innervation and embryological derivation of the main groups of skeletal muscles with particular emphasis on the phylogeny of the branchial arch musculature.

Nervous system. Development and general plan of organization of the central and peripheral nervous system. Morphology, connections and functional significance of different parts of the central nervous system in the various classes of Vertebrates. Peripheral nervous system: spinal nerves and cranial nerves. Autonomic nervous system.

Sensory organs. Development and general plan of organization with emphasis on eye, ear and lateral line apparatus.



Reference Material
Giavini E, Menegola E.: Manuale di Anatomia Comparata, EdiSES, 2010.


Prerequisites and examination procedures
Written exam


Teaching Methods F
rontal lectures plus practicals

Language
Italian
BIO/06 - COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND CYTOLOGY - University credits: 6
Practicals: 8 hours
Lessons: 44 hours
Professor: Biffo Stefano