Cytology and histology

A.Y. 2017/2018
9
Max ECTS
78
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/06
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
This course aims to provide students with the basic knowledge of fundamental characteristics of living organisms (prokaryotes and eukaryotes) and, specifically, of animal cell biology relative to mammals, with particular reference to humans. At the end of the course, students will gain specific knowledge of the main biological structures - biological (macro)molecules, cells, tissues - their functions and main interactions. Furthermore, students will gain a basic understanding of the structure and main characteristics of viruses and bacteria.
Expected learning outcomes
Undefined
Course syllabus and organization

A - L

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
Course syllabus
CYTOLOGY
General characteristics of living beings. Cell theory.
Chemical bases of life: atoms, ions, elements, molecules, polymer macromolecules; chemical bond and their biological role; chemical composition of living substance: water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. DNA replication, transcription and translation of genetic information.
Autotrophy, heterotrophy. Transformations of matter and energy demand: catabolism, anabolism, metabolism. How cells derive energy from food: metabolic pathways and chemical energy.
Basic techniques for morphological analysis of cells and tissues; tools and sample preparation for microscopic and submicroscopic analysis.
Organizational levels of living substance. Viruses and subviral agents. Prokaryotes ed eukaryotes. Unicellular and multicellular organisms.
Eukaryotic animal cell. Cell membranes: chemical composition and structure; permeability and transport; plasma membrane specializations (microvilli, cilia, glycocalyx, junctions).
Endomembrane system: endoplasmic reticulum; the Golgi apparatus; lysosomes; exocytosis, endocytosis, vesicular trafficking; mitochondria; peroxisomes; the nucleus: nuclear envelope, nucleoskeleton, chromatin, chromosomes; nucleolus, structure and biogenesis of ribosomes; ribosomes and protein synthesis.
Cytoskeleton and cell motility.
The eukaryotic cell cycle. Eukaryotic cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Gametes. Fertilization and embryonic development (introduction).

HISTOLOGY
Epithelial tissues: covering/lining epithelia and glandular epithelia.
Connective tissues: connective tissue proper; specialised connective tissue: adipose tissue; cartilage; bone tissue; blood; lymphoid tissue.
Muscle tissue: skeletal muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue; muscle contraction.
Nervous tissue; synapses; glia.



Reference Material
Dalle Donne I., Gagliano N., et al., "Istologia ed elementi di anatomia microscopica". Edizioni EdiSES, 2010.
Becker, Kleinsmith, Hardin, Bertoni, "Il mondo della cellula". Pearson, VIII ed., 2014 (o 7 ed., 2009).
Alberts et al., "L'essenziale di biologia molecolare della cellula". Zanichelli, IV ed. ital., 2015 (o III ed. ital., 2011).
Cooper, Hausman, "La cellula, un approccio molecolare". Piccin, 2012.


Prerequisites and examination procedures
Written exam test: recognition of tissues, cells and cellular structures (light and electonic microscopy); each exam test is composed of 15 multiple choice images (time available: 30 minutes); passing the written examination (with the minimum rating of 18/39) is required to access the oral examination. The oral examination will cover all the program carried during the course.


Teaching Methods
Traditional


Language of instruction
Italian


Program information
Program details will be provided in class and will be also available on the personal website of the teacher on online education Ariel portal.


WEB pages
http://idalledonnecial.ariel.ctu.unimi.it/v3/home/Default.aspx
BIO/06 - COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND CYTOLOGY - University credits: 9
Practicals: 12 hours
Lessons: 66 hours
Shifts:
Turno 1
Professor: Dalle Donne Isabella
Turno 2
Professor: Dalle Donne Isabella
Turno 3
Professor: Dalle Donne Isabella

M - Z

Lesson period
First semester
Course syllabus
CYTOLOGY
General characteristics of living beings. Cell theory.
Chemical bases of life: atoms, ions, elements, molecules, polymer macromolecules; chemical bond and their biological role; chemical composition of living substance: water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. DNA replication, transcription and translation of genetic information.
Autotrophy, heterotrophy. Transformations of matter and energy demand: catabolism, anabolism, metabolism. How cells derive energy from food: metabolic pathways and chemical energy.
Basic techniques for morphological analysis of cells and tissues; tools and sample preparation for microscopic and submicroscopic analysis.
Organizational levels of living substance. Viruses and subviral agents. Prokaryotes ed eukaryotes. Unicellular and multicellular organisms.
Eukaryotic animal cell. Cell membranes: chemical composition and structure; permeability and transport; plasma membrane specializations (microvilli, cilia, glycocalyx, junctions).
Endomembrane system: endoplasmic reticulum; the Golgi apparatus; lysosomes; exocytosis, endocytosis, vesicular trafficking; mitochondria; peroxisomes; the nucleus: nuclear envelope, nucleoskeleton, chromatin, chromosomes; nucleolus, structure and biogenesis of ribosomes; ribosomes and protein synthesis.
Cytoskeleton and cell motility.
The eukaryotic cell cycle. Eukaryotic cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Gametes. Fertilization and embryonic development (introduction).

HISTOLOGY
Epithelial tissues: covering/lining epithelia and glandular epithelia.
Connective tissues: connective tissue proper; specialised connective tissue: adipose tissue; cartilage; bone tissue; blood; lymphoid tissue.
Muscle tissue: skeletal muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue; muscle contraction.
Nervous tissue; synapses; glia.



Reference Material
Dalle Donne I., Gagliano N., et al., "Istologia ed elementi di anatomia microscopica". Edizioni EdiSES, 2010.
Colombo R., Olmo E. "Biologia della Cellula" Edi-Ermes.
Colombo R., Olmo E. " Biologia dei tessuti" Edi-Ermes.



Prerequisites and examination procedures
Written exam test: recognition of tissues, cells and cellular structures (light and electonic microscopy); each exam test is composed of 15 multiple choice images (time available: 30 minutes); passing the written examination (with the minimum rating of 18/39) is required to access the oral examination. The oral examination will cover all the program carried during the course.


Teaching Methods
Traditional


Language of instruction
Italian


Program information
Program details will be provided in class.
BIO/06 - COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND CYTOLOGY - University credits: 9
Practicals: 12 hours
Lessons: 66 hours
Shifts:
Turno 1
Professor: Milzani Aldo Domenico Guido
Turno 2
Professor: Milzani Aldo Domenico Guido
Turno 3
Professor: Milzani Aldo Domenico Guido
Professor(s)
Reception:
upon appointment by e-mail
Dept. of BioSciences, B tower, 6th floor