1- General principles of physiology: human body composition, intra- and extra-cellular volumes, forces producing movements across membranes (electrical, chemical and osmotic gradients), Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium, resting membrane potentials; functional compartments of the human body, coordination and integration of physiological functions, the concept of homeostasis, type of controls of the physiological functions (negative and positive feed-back, feed-forward).
2- Excitable cells: Neurons: membrane and action potentials, spatial and temporal summation in nervous transmission, axonal electrical conduction, synapse activity, excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Muscle cells: initiation and propagation of action potential in skeletal, smooth, cardiac and pacemaker cells, neuromuscular junction, intrinsic and extrinsic control of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle contraction,
3- Intercellular communications: sense receptors, afferent and efferent nervous pathways, spinal reflexes, general functions of the endocrine system
4- Central nervous system: functional organization of CNS, hypothalamic control of visceral functions and of body temperature, sleep/weakness rhythms, sensory and motor cortex, control of posture and movement, instinctual behaviors and emotions, conditioned reflexes, higher brain functions (learning and memory, control of language
5- Cardiovascular system: electrical and mechanical activity of the heart, cardiac cycle and volume/pressure relationship during the cardiac cycle, the electrocardiogram, cardiac output and blood flow, the law of Frank and Starling, dynamics of blood flow: artery, capillary and venous circulation, control of blood flow and arterial pressure.
6- The blood: physiological functions of the blood components, role of red blood cells and hemoglobin in oxygen and carbon dioxide uptake and transport, association and dissociation curves of oxygen-hemoglobin and carbon dioxide-hemoglobin, platelets and blood hemostasis.
7- The respiratory system: mechanic of respiration and lung volumes, gas properties, gas exchanges in the alveoli, local and central control of breathing (role of pH, of oxygen and of carbon dioxide)
8- The renal system: glomerular filtration (plasma proteins and glomerular filtration pressure), clearance and glomerular filtration rate measurements, tubular reabsorption and secretion, the loop of Henle and the countercurrent mechanism, water and electrolyte regulated excretion (role of ADH and of aldosterone)
9- Integrated regulation of extracellular fluid composition, blood volume and arterial pressure, the buffering systems, role of lungs and kidneys in the regulation of H+ concentration
10- Gastrointestinal system: nervous and endocrine regulation of digestion and of gastrointestinal motility, digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, absorption of nutrients, water, electrolytes, vitamins and minerals, liver functions, the endocrine control of the energy balance.
11- Reproductive System: basis of the differentiation and function of the male and female reproductive system from gestation to aging