Organic substances such as fundamental building blocks of living material. We will describe the structure, the physical-chemical properties and reactivity of the major classes of organic compounds, with particular emphasis on those most important in food matrices.
Expected learning outcomes
1. Knowledge of basic classification and nomenclature of organic compounds, as fundamental building blocks of living material. 2. Understanding of the relationships that exist between the chemical formula, three-dimensional structure and physical-chemical properties (solubility, volatility, color, etc..) of organic molecules. 3. Knowledge of the main reactions of organic compounds: acid-base reactions, oxidation-reduction, hydrolysis, etc. radical reactions.
Main Themes (credit n.1): the organic compounds: structure, isomerism, compact formula, functional group. Intermolecular bonds in the organic compounds and their relationship with chemical-physical proprieties: volatility, solubility, etc¿Alkanes and cycloalkanes: conformational analysis; chemical-physical proprieties; radical reactions; radical¿s stability. Alkenes: structure, proprieties, geometric isomerism. Dienes and polyenes (short account). Addition reactions of alkenes: electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents. Radical reactions of alkenes. Alkanes and alkenes in nature: terpenes (short account). Aromatic compounds: some derivative of benzene, polycycles and heterocyclic aromatic compounds. nomenclature and structure of aromatic compounds. Main Themes (credit n.2): alkyl halides: structure, reactivity, proprieties and ecological problems. Alcohols: structure, proprieties, acidity and redox reactions. Phenols: structure, proprieties, acidity and redox reactions. Antioxidants. Other oxigenated derivatives: quinones ethers, epoxides. Organosulfur compounds compounds: thiols and disulfur derivatives. Chirality and optical activity, absolute and relative configuration. Enantiomers, diasteroisomers and racemic mixtures. Relationship between biological proprieties and optical active compounds. CFC and ozone¿s hole. The pesticides. Main Themes (credit n.3): aldehydes and ketones: structure, proprieties, redox and nucleophic addition reactions. Semiacetals, acetals and hydrated derivative of aldehydes and ketones. Some typical carbonyl addition reactions of nitrogen nucleophilic reagent. Carbohydrates: mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides: structure and Fisher projections, stereochemistry. Cyclic structure and mutarotation. Disaccharides and polysaccharides: proprieties and importance in biological system. Main Themes (credit n.4): carboxylic acids: proprieties and reactions. Funcional derivatives of carboxilyc acids: acid halides, esters, amides, anhydrides, carbammates, uree. Reactions of nucleophilic displacements: esterifications and hydrolysis of esters and amides. Lipids: fatty acids, triglycerids, phospholipids. Soap and tensioactives. Main Themes (credit n.5): amines: structure, proprieties, basicity. Natural nitrogen containing compounds (short account). Aminoacids and peptide bond, pI. Peptides and proteins. Main Themes (credit n.6): exercises in preparation to the exam.
Dispositive del corso Testi consigliati: P. Y. Bruice, Elementi di Chimica Organica 2 edizione (Edises). comprende versione ebook. ESERCIZIARI di CHIMICA ORGANICA