Objective of the course is to furnish the student of the most important knowledges about the chemistry of aromatic compounds, both carbocyclic and heterocyclic. The student learn the structural characteristics, reactivity and synthetic methodologies of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds, thus acquiring a good knowledge of aromatic and heterocyclic chemistry. During the course, which is divided into three parts, several exercises are done in classroom, during which students learn rationale methods for the design of the synthesis and functionalization of all of the classes of aromatic and heterocyclic compounds described in the course.
1) Concepts of aromaticity and heteroaromaticity is illustrated. The main structural characteristics and general reactivity of carbocyclic aromatic systems (benzene and derivatives) is illustrated. The mail classes of reactions such as electrophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitution are deeply discussed. In particular, unimolecular, carbocation, elimination-addition via aryne, addition-elimination mechanisms are presented for nucleophilic aromatic substitution. (TOTAL 20 h of lessons and 6 h of exercises)
2) The description of the main classes of aromatic compounds is presented. In particular, general characteristics, reactivity and synthetic methods of arenes, alkyl arenes, naphtalenes, aryl and aryl aliphatic halogeno derivatives, nitrose derivatives (nitro-, nitroso-, and azo.compounds, aryl hydroxylamines, mono- and diarylhydrazines, aromatic amines, diazonium salts), phenols and derivatives, aldehydes and ketones, nitriles, carboxylic acids and derivatives, sulphur containing compounds, quinines. (TOTAL 15 h of lessons and 6 h of exercises)
3) The main classes of heterocyclic compounds are described, first presenting their general structural characteristics, their reactivity and main synthetic methods. In detail, pyrrole, furan, thiophene and their benzocondensed indole, benzofuran and benzothiophene are discussed. The specific reactivity of each ring towards electrophilic substitution, oxidation, reduction and some addition reactions are presented. The six atom rings considered are: pyridine, quinoline and isoquinoline. Some five member rings containing two heteroatoms, such as imidazole, isoxazole and pyrazole are also presented. (TOTAL 13 h of lessons and 6 h of exercises)
Reference material for students
Students are given an issue which contains all of the slides presented during the classroom lessons, integrated with a written part describing all the topics.
In addition, the following textbooks are highly recommended:
1] Brown, Foote, Iverson, Anslyn, CHIMICA ORGANICA IV edizione
2] Marc Loudon, CHIMICA ORGANICA
Requirement and examination procedure
Written exam. During the course, three written checks will be carried out, each one referring to the three parts of the programme, giving rise to the final evaluation.
General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry I.
Students are expected to attend all of the lessons.