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Physics, Chemistry, Informatics Biostatistics and English

A.Y. 2017/2018

Learning objectives

Scopo del corso di Fisica, Chimica, Informatica Biostatistica e Inglese è quello di fornire agli studenti le nozioni necessarie per l'acquisizione dei concetti fondamentali delle diverse discipline (chimica generale ed inorganica, fisica, informatica e biostatistica) per la comprensione dei fenomeni biologici e per il consolidamento delle conoscenze della lingua inglese

Expected learning outcomes

Undefined

**Lesson period:**
First semester

**Assessment methods:** Esame

**Assessment result:** voto verbalizzato in trentesimi

Course syllabus and organization

### Single session

Responsible

Lesson period

First semester

**ATTENDING STUDENTS**

**Modulo: Fisica**

**Course syllabus**

OBJECTIVES:

Presentation of the basic principles of physics, with references and applications to some topics in Medicine and Biology in order to highlight the importance of the subject for the analysis and understanding of natural phenomena.

MODULE PROGRAM:

- INTRODUCTION: · Introduction to Science and Physics · Scientific Method · Measurement of physical quantities, Units · International System, fundamental and derived quantities · Value and uncertainty in a series of measurements · Significant digits and rounding · Scientific notation, orders of magnitude. (1h)

- CINEMATICS: · Time · Space · Speed · Periodic and wave phenomena · Duration of a phenomenon · Frequency · Inertial mass · Length, area, volume measurements · Density · Average and instantaneous speeds · Acceleration. (1h)

- FORCES: · Forces · The Three Principles of Dynamics · Straight Motions · The Law of Universal Gravitation and Gravity Acceleration · Weight · Falling Free. (2h)

- DYNAMICS I: · Principle of energy conservation · Energy forms · Work and energy · Power · Conservative and dissipative forces · Potential energy · Kinetic energy. (2h)

- DYNAMICS II: · Kinetic energy theorem · Mechanical energy conservation · Linear momentum and conservation law · Mass center · Rotational motions: angular velocity and angular acceleration · Moment of inertia. (2h)

- STATICA: · Simple machines · Angular momentum and conservation law · Torque · Statics and its cardinal equations: equilibrium · Simple machines and mechanical gain. (2h)

- THERMAL PHENOMENA I: · Dissipative forces: friction, machine performance · Extensive and intensive properties/quantities · Specific weight · Pressure · Phases of Matter · Molecular interactions and internal energy · Temperature and Heat · Heat transport. (2h)

- THERMAL PHENOMENA II: · Thermal expansion/contraction · Thermal capacity and specific heat · Thermal conductivity · Thermodynamics, state variables, thermodynamic systems · Ideal gases, equation of state. (2h)

- THERMODYNAMICS: · Zero principle · First principle · Second principle · Entropy · Third principle · Thermodynamic Potentials, Equilibirum States and Free Energies. (2h)

- STATICS OF FLUIDS: · Fluids · Pressure Isotropy · Stevin's Law: Hydrostatic Pressure · Pascal's Principle · Archimede's Principle · Surface tension, capillarity · Flow rate. (2h)

- DYNAMICS OF FLUIDS, ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA: · Bernulli's Theorem · Viscosity · Laminar motion, turbolent motion · The atom: microscopic structure · Electric charge · Coulomb force · Field and electrical potential · Electric current · Ohm laws, resistance and resistivity · Electrical power and Joule effect · Magnetic fields · The laser. (3h)

- OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, NUCLEAR PHYSICS, MEDICAL PHYSICS: · Waves · Optics · Acoustics · Nuclear Physics · Physics in Medicine · Diagnostic Techniques: Physical Applications. (3h)

Starting from the fourth lesson, in the first 30 minutes of the class exercises, related to the topics already covered in previous lessons, are proposed and solved.

Presentation of the basic principles of physics, with references and applications to some topics in Medicine and Biology in order to highlight the importance of the subject for the analysis and understanding of natural phenomena.

MODULE PROGRAM:

- INTRODUCTION: · Introduction to Science and Physics · Scientific Method · Measurement of physical quantities, Units · International System, fundamental and derived quantities · Value and uncertainty in a series of measurements · Significant digits and rounding · Scientific notation, orders of magnitude. (1h)

- CINEMATICS: · Time · Space · Speed · Periodic and wave phenomena · Duration of a phenomenon · Frequency · Inertial mass · Length, area, volume measurements · Density · Average and instantaneous speeds · Acceleration. (1h)

- FORCES: · Forces · The Three Principles of Dynamics · Straight Motions · The Law of Universal Gravitation and Gravity Acceleration · Weight · Falling Free. (2h)

- DYNAMICS I: · Principle of energy conservation · Energy forms · Work and energy · Power · Conservative and dissipative forces · Potential energy · Kinetic energy. (2h)

- DYNAMICS II: · Kinetic energy theorem · Mechanical energy conservation · Linear momentum and conservation law · Mass center · Rotational motions: angular velocity and angular acceleration · Moment of inertia. (2h)

- STATICA: · Simple machines · Angular momentum and conservation law · Torque · Statics and its cardinal equations: equilibrium · Simple machines and mechanical gain. (2h)

- THERMAL PHENOMENA I: · Dissipative forces: friction, machine performance · Extensive and intensive properties/quantities · Specific weight · Pressure · Phases of Matter · Molecular interactions and internal energy · Temperature and Heat · Heat transport. (2h)

- THERMAL PHENOMENA II: · Thermal expansion/contraction · Thermal capacity and specific heat · Thermal conductivity · Thermodynamics, state variables, thermodynamic systems · Ideal gases, equation of state. (2h)

- THERMODYNAMICS: · Zero principle · First principle · Second principle · Entropy · Third principle · Thermodynamic Potentials, Equilibirum States and Free Energies. (2h)

- STATICS OF FLUIDS: · Fluids · Pressure Isotropy · Stevin's Law: Hydrostatic Pressure · Pascal's Principle · Archimede's Principle · Surface tension, capillarity · Flow rate. (2h)

- DYNAMICS OF FLUIDS, ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA: · Bernulli's Theorem · Viscosity · Laminar motion, turbolent motion · The atom: microscopic structure · Electric charge · Coulomb force · Field and electrical potential · Electric current · Ohm laws, resistance and resistivity · Electrical power and Joule effect · Magnetic fields · The laser. (3h)

- OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, NUCLEAR PHYSICS, MEDICAL PHYSICS: · Waves · Optics · Acoustics · Nuclear Physics · Physics in Medicine · Diagnostic Techniques: Physical Applications. (3h)

Starting from the fourth lesson, in the first 30 minutes of the class exercises, related to the topics already covered in previous lessons, are proposed and solved.

**Modulo: Chimica**

**Course syllabus**

AIMS

a) basic concepts of general, inorganic and organic chemistry suitable to molecular understanding of the biological events; b) stoichiometric calculations needed to laboratory protocols; c) Structure of simple organic compounds and main reaction mechanisms.

SYLLABUS

Theoretical classes

Structure of the matter :Electronic configurations of atoms. Periodic table. Ionic and covalent bonds. Geometry and polarity of molecules. Hydrogen bond. Notes on ideal gases (1h)

Stoichiometry: Chemical equations. Mass and charge balance. Redox reactions Atomic and molecular weight. Mole. Equivalent. Concentration of solutions. Molarity and normality (2h)

Kinetics and equilibrium : Order and molecularity of a chemical process. Equilibrium and equilibrium constant. heterogeneous equilbrium : solubility poroduct (1h)

Acids and bases in water. Bronsted theory. Strong and weak acids and bases. Polyprotic acids. Amphiprotic species. Buffer solutions. "p" symbol. pH calculations in solutions containing a weak acid, a weak base, an amphiprotic specie, a buffer systems. Amino acid behavior (4h)

Thermodynamics : First principle. Enthalpy. Entropy. Free energy. Standard and actual conditions (1h)

Electrochemistry: Pile. Redox potentials. Nernst equation (1h)

Colligative properties of aqueous solutions : osmosis. Van't Hoff coefficient. Donnan equilibrium. (1h)

Coordination compounds : Lewis theory of acids and bases. Octahedral coordination. Acidity of some aqueous cations. (1h)

Organic nomenclature : saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Main functional groups. (1h)

Stereochemistry : Conformations. Stereogenic centers. Absolute and relative configurations. (1h)

Reaction mechanisms: Electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents. Nucleophilic addition to carbonyl compounds. Acyl nucleophilic substitution. Aldolic and Claisen condensations.

Practical classes

Molecular structure (class): exercises on geometry of molecules (1h)

Inorganic nomenclature (class) : exercises on inorganic nomenclature (2h)

Soichiometry (class): exercises on moles, molarity and stoichiometric calculations. (2h)

pH calculations (class): exercises on pH calculations on solutions of weak acids, weak bases, amphiprotic species, buffer systems. (4h)

Thermodynamics (class) : exercises on thermochemical calculations. (1h)

Electrochemistry (class) : exercises on application of Nernst equation (1h)

Osmosis (class) : exercises on osmotic pressure calculations (1h)

Organic nomenclature (class) exercises on structures of organic compounds (1h)

Stereochemistry (class) . exercises on conformations and configurations (1h)

Reaction mechanisms (class) : exercises on reaction mechanism (2h)

a) basic concepts of general, inorganic and organic chemistry suitable to molecular understanding of the biological events; b) stoichiometric calculations needed to laboratory protocols; c) Structure of simple organic compounds and main reaction mechanisms.

SYLLABUS

Theoretical classes

Structure of the matter :Electronic configurations of atoms. Periodic table. Ionic and covalent bonds. Geometry and polarity of molecules. Hydrogen bond. Notes on ideal gases (1h)

Stoichiometry: Chemical equations. Mass and charge balance. Redox reactions Atomic and molecular weight. Mole. Equivalent. Concentration of solutions. Molarity and normality (2h)

Kinetics and equilibrium : Order and molecularity of a chemical process. Equilibrium and equilibrium constant. heterogeneous equilbrium : solubility poroduct (1h)

Acids and bases in water. Bronsted theory. Strong and weak acids and bases. Polyprotic acids. Amphiprotic species. Buffer solutions. "p" symbol. pH calculations in solutions containing a weak acid, a weak base, an amphiprotic specie, a buffer systems. Amino acid behavior (4h)

Thermodynamics : First principle. Enthalpy. Entropy. Free energy. Standard and actual conditions (1h)

Electrochemistry: Pile. Redox potentials. Nernst equation (1h)

Colligative properties of aqueous solutions : osmosis. Van't Hoff coefficient. Donnan equilibrium. (1h)

Coordination compounds : Lewis theory of acids and bases. Octahedral coordination. Acidity of some aqueous cations. (1h)

Organic nomenclature : saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Main functional groups. (1h)

Stereochemistry : Conformations. Stereogenic centers. Absolute and relative configurations. (1h)

Reaction mechanisms: Electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents. Nucleophilic addition to carbonyl compounds. Acyl nucleophilic substitution. Aldolic and Claisen condensations.

Practical classes

Molecular structure (class): exercises on geometry of molecules (1h)

Inorganic nomenclature (class) : exercises on inorganic nomenclature (2h)

Soichiometry (class): exercises on moles, molarity and stoichiometric calculations. (2h)

pH calculations (class): exercises on pH calculations on solutions of weak acids, weak bases, amphiprotic species, buffer systems. (4h)

Thermodynamics (class) : exercises on thermochemical calculations. (1h)

Electrochemistry (class) : exercises on application of Nernst equation (1h)

Osmosis (class) : exercises on osmotic pressure calculations (1h)

Organic nomenclature (class) exercises on structures of organic compounds (1h)

Stereochemistry (class) . exercises on conformations and configurations (1h)

Reaction mechanisms (class) : exercises on reaction mechanism (2h)

**Modulo: Informatica e Biostatistica**

**Course syllabus**

Learning objectives: Acquisition of basic concepts of computer science and descriptive and inferential statistics applied to biological data. Acquisition of basic skills for the practical use of a spreadsheet for the analysis of biological data.

Syllabus

1. Theoretical Classes

· Introduction to the subject: the importance of biostatistics in Veterinary Medicine. Descriptive and inferential statistics. Samples and populations. Types of variables: qualitative, quantitative. Accuracy, accuracy and distortion (1 hrs)

· Descriptive statistics. Absolute, relative and cumulative frequency tables. Diagrams and histograms. Percentiles and Quantiles. Arithmetic and geometric mean, median, mode, interquartile difference. Range of variation, deviance, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation (2 hrs)

· Probability. Sample distributions. Statistical test. Basic rules of probability. Contingency tables. Bayes theorem in diagnostic applications: false positives.. The sampling distribution of an estimate: the standard error. The confidence interval. Verifying hypotheses. Null hypothesis and alternative statistical significance and P-value. Check hypothesis and confidence intervals. Error types I and II (2 hrs)

· Analysis of proportions: binomial distribution. Estimating proportions: confidence interval and standard error of a proportion. The chi squared test. The Poisson distribution. Normal distribution. Normalized standard distribution. The central limit theorem (2 hrs)

· Inference to a population with normal distribution: distribution, assumption, and properties. The t test for a sample. The t test for comparison between two averages. Paired and independent data. The comparison between the averages of several groups: analysis of variance (2 hrs)

· Relationship between variables: covariance. Correlation and linear regression (2 hrs)

· Introduction to information science: Information concept, algorithm, coding and language. The encoding of information, data, letters and images. Decimal, hexadecimal, binary numeration. Text encoding: ASCII and UNICODE format. Image formats: bitmap graphics and vector graphics (3 hrs)

· Use of spreadsheets: operators, absolute and relative references, biological data management, formulas and tools for statistical analysis of data (2 hrs)

2. Practical classes (Computer Classroom):

· Databases: CAB Abstract (3 hrs) PubMed (3 hrs) OPAC (3 hrs)

· Using Spreadsheets: Importing Data and Formats. Working with tables and charts Working with dates (2 hrs)

· Statistical variables and their representation: designing questionnaires for building datasets containing different types of variables. Randomization (3 hrs)

· Dataset analysis: data import and control, formatting, data quality control (2 hrs)

· Construction of tables and graphs appropriate for the analysis of different types of variables: paddle and overlapping bars diagrams, pie charts; maps; Dispersion diagrams, histograms, Sturges rule, percentiles and quantiles, cumulative frequency distributions, contingency tables (4 hrs)

· Descriptive statistics: Calculation of the principal position and dispersion measurements: arithmetic and geometric mean, mode, median, percentile and quantile (3 hrs)

· Variation range; Interquartile interval; Deviance standard deviation and variation coefficient (3hrs)

· Evaluation of the normality of a distribution. Outlier identification and evaluation (2 hrs)

· Standard error. Confidence interval of an average with known variance and not. Confidence interval and standard error of a ratio (4 hrs)

· Chi square test for the evaluation of the goodness of fit and for contingency table analysis (2 hrs)

· Use of statistical tables and excel functions for determining the critical values of the different distributions (2 hrs)

· T test for paired and independent data (3 hrs)

· Evaluation of the Null and alternative hypothesis (1 hrs)

· Analysis of variance with one and two factors. F Test (2 hrs)

· Post-hoc Test: Dunnet and Scheffé (2 hrs)

· Relationship Measures: Covariance, Correlation (2 hrs)

· Linear regression. Expected Values. Residues. Coefficient of determination(2hrs)

Syllabus

1. Theoretical Classes

· Introduction to the subject: the importance of biostatistics in Veterinary Medicine. Descriptive and inferential statistics. Samples and populations. Types of variables: qualitative, quantitative. Accuracy, accuracy and distortion (1 hrs)

· Descriptive statistics. Absolute, relative and cumulative frequency tables. Diagrams and histograms. Percentiles and Quantiles. Arithmetic and geometric mean, median, mode, interquartile difference. Range of variation, deviance, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation (2 hrs)

· Probability. Sample distributions. Statistical test. Basic rules of probability. Contingency tables. Bayes theorem in diagnostic applications: false positives.. The sampling distribution of an estimate: the standard error. The confidence interval. Verifying hypotheses. Null hypothesis and alternative statistical significance and P-value. Check hypothesis and confidence intervals. Error types I and II (2 hrs)

· Analysis of proportions: binomial distribution. Estimating proportions: confidence interval and standard error of a proportion. The chi squared test. The Poisson distribution. Normal distribution. Normalized standard distribution. The central limit theorem (2 hrs)

· Inference to a population with normal distribution: distribution, assumption, and properties. The t test for a sample. The t test for comparison between two averages. Paired and independent data. The comparison between the averages of several groups: analysis of variance (2 hrs)

· Relationship between variables: covariance. Correlation and linear regression (2 hrs)

· Introduction to information science: Information concept, algorithm, coding and language. The encoding of information, data, letters and images. Decimal, hexadecimal, binary numeration. Text encoding: ASCII and UNICODE format. Image formats: bitmap graphics and vector graphics (3 hrs)

· Use of spreadsheets: operators, absolute and relative references, biological data management, formulas and tools for statistical analysis of data (2 hrs)

2. Practical classes (Computer Classroom):

· Databases: CAB Abstract (3 hrs) PubMed (3 hrs) OPAC (3 hrs)

· Using Spreadsheets: Importing Data and Formats. Working with tables and charts Working with dates (2 hrs)

· Statistical variables and their representation: designing questionnaires for building datasets containing different types of variables. Randomization (3 hrs)

· Dataset analysis: data import and control, formatting, data quality control (2 hrs)

· Construction of tables and graphs appropriate for the analysis of different types of variables: paddle and overlapping bars diagrams, pie charts; maps; Dispersion diagrams, histograms, Sturges rule, percentiles and quantiles, cumulative frequency distributions, contingency tables (4 hrs)

· Descriptive statistics: Calculation of the principal position and dispersion measurements: arithmetic and geometric mean, mode, median, percentile and quantile (3 hrs)

· Variation range; Interquartile interval; Deviance standard deviation and variation coefficient (3hrs)

· Evaluation of the normality of a distribution. Outlier identification and evaluation (2 hrs)

· Standard error. Confidence interval of an average with known variance and not. Confidence interval and standard error of a ratio (4 hrs)

· Chi square test for the evaluation of the goodness of fit and for contingency table analysis (2 hrs)

· Use of statistical tables and excel functions for determining the critical values of the different distributions (2 hrs)

· T test for paired and independent data (3 hrs)

· Evaluation of the Null and alternative hypothesis (1 hrs)

· Analysis of variance with one and two factors. F Test (2 hrs)

· Post-hoc Test: Dunnet and Scheffé (2 hrs)

· Relationship Measures: Covariance, Correlation (2 hrs)

· Linear regression. Expected Values. Residues. Coefficient of determination(2hrs)

**Modulo: Inglese**

**Course syllabus**

HOW THE COURSE IS DIVIDED

The Course, 3 CFU, is divided into twelve 2-hour Lectures (3 CFU - 24 hours) dealing with English language structures of relevance to scientific English; Reading and Listening Comprehension of scientific production; Scientific Terminology; Output of scientific material.

COURSE DETAILS

1. Introduction to Scientific English (ESP) - Essentials of Scientific English 1 - Reading Comprehension;

2. Essentials of Scientific English 2 - Listening Comprehension;

3. Scientific Terminology - Reading Comprehension;

4. Tenses for Scientific English: present, past and future - Listening Comprehension;

5. Nouns and verb agreement - Reading and Speaking about Veterinary career;

6. Adjectives and quantifiers - Reading and Speaking about animals of veterinary interest;

7. Writing ESP (English for Specific Purpose):Basics 1 - Making hypotheses - IMRAD model;

8. Writing ESP: Basics 2 - Passive forms of verbs - An Abstract - example;

9. Power Point Presentations - examples;

10. Writing ESP - Scientific Papers - examples;

11. Writing ESP - Short Communications and Audioslides - examples;

12. Meet International Certification Testing: TOEFL and IELTS - English Language Mock Test.

The Course, 3 CFU, is divided into twelve 2-hour Lectures (3 CFU - 24 hours) dealing with English language structures of relevance to scientific English; Reading and Listening Comprehension of scientific production; Scientific Terminology; Output of scientific material.

COURSE DETAILS

1. Introduction to Scientific English (ESP) - Essentials of Scientific English 1 - Reading Comprehension;

2. Essentials of Scientific English 2 - Listening Comprehension;

3. Scientific Terminology - Reading Comprehension;

4. Tenses for Scientific English: present, past and future - Listening Comprehension;

5. Nouns and verb agreement - Reading and Speaking about Veterinary career;

6. Adjectives and quantifiers - Reading and Speaking about animals of veterinary interest;

7. Writing ESP (English for Specific Purpose):Basics 1 - Making hypotheses - IMRAD model;

8. Writing ESP: Basics 2 - Passive forms of verbs - An Abstract - example;

9. Power Point Presentations - examples;

10. Writing ESP - Scientific Papers - examples;

11. Writing ESP - Short Communications and Audioslides - examples;

12. Meet International Certification Testing: TOEFL and IELTS - English Language Mock Test.

**NON-ATTENDING STUDENTS**

**Modulo: Fisica**

**Course syllabus**

Not scheduled

Modulo: Chimica

CHIM/03 - GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

CHIM/06 - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

CHIM/06 - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Practicals: 16 hours

Lessons: 16 hours

Lessons: 16 hours

Professor:
Biondi Pier Antonio

Modulo: Fisica

FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 3

Lessons: 24 hours

Professor:
Galli Davide Emilio

Modulo: Informatica e Biostatistica

SECS-S/02 - STATISTICS FOR EXPERIMENTAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH - University credits: 5

Practicals: 48 hours

Lessons: 16 hours

Lessons: 16 hours

Professor:
Crepaldi Paola

Modulo: Inglese

L-LIN/12 - LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION - ENGLISH - University credits: 3

Lessons: 24 hours

Professor:
Canepa Gigliola

Professor(s)

Reception:

keeping an appointment by e-mail

Sezione di Zootecnica Agraria, 1st floor, Via Celoria 2

Reception:

Wednesday 14:30-16:00, or in other days by appointment (contact me by e-mail or telephone)

Dip. di Fisica, stanza A/T/S5b (piano 0 edificio LITA), via Celoria, 16