Knowledge of the forest ecosystem and of associated arthropod coenosis. To learn the techniques of environmental management in a perspective of sustainable development.The course supplies the fundamental knowledge on the different pathogenic agents, how they attack the plants and the kind of alterations and damages that can induce in the hosts. Il also deal with the fundamental principles necessary to set up the modern methods of prevention and pest control especially on diseases connected with natural environments and cultures typical of mountain habitats.
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge of the dynamics and issues related to the arthropods present in a forest environmentTo recognize the different agents that can damage cultivated and spontaneous plants, to weigh their dangerousness and to propose preventive measures and criteria of pest control that can be adopted by different kind of agriculture managements preserving natural environments and human health.
GENERAL PART I. INTRODUCTION - Introduction to the study of insects. - Systematic position of insects. Differences between Insects and other Arthropods. General characteristics of insects.
II. INSECT BODY STRUCTURE & FUNCTION - Morphology of the head. Parts of the head and appendages (antennae and mouthparts). Mouthparts: chewingr; piercing, sucking (Rhynchota). - Morphology of the thorax. Segments of the thorax. Appendices: wings; legs. - Morphology of the abdomen. Abdominal segments. Appendages. - Integumentary system. Integument and its structure. Exoskeleton. Endoskeleton. - Muscle and locomotion system. - Digestive System. Constitution and structure of the digestive tract. Physiology of digestion. Diets. - Respiratory system. Constitution and structure of tracheal system. Physiology of respiration. - Circulatory system. Constitution and structure of circulatory system. Hemolymph. Physiology of circulation. - Nervous system. Neuron. Central nervous system (brain, gnatocerebro, ventral ganglion chain). Visceral nervous system (dorsal sympathetic, ventral sympathetic, cardio-aortic, caudal sympathetic). Peripheral nervous system. - Sense organs. Chemoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors. Hygroreceptors. Phonoreceptors. Thermoreceptors. Photoreceptors (simple eyes, compound eyes). - Excretory system. Malpighian tubes. Nephrocytes. Adipose tissue. Integument - Secretory system. Glands of external secretion; wax, lac and silk secreting glands, of defence and attack, connected to the reproductive system, to pheromones - Reproductive system. Male and female reproductive system. Reproduction: amphigony; parthenogenesis. Fertility.
III. THE LIFE OF INSECTS - Post-embryonic development. Mute. Metamorphosis: heterometabolous; hemimetabolous; holometabolous. Post- embryonic stages: nymphs, larvae, pupae. - The adult insect. Emergence. Sexual dimorphism and secondary sexual characteristics. Polymorphism.
IV. CONCEPTS OF CROP PROTECTION - INTEGRATED DEFENSE - Population dynamics. Insect population evaluation methods. Estimating a population. Growth patterns of insect populations. Population fluctuations. Demographic tables. Analysis of key factors. - Biotic and abiotic adversity. - Risk management. Habitat management, concept of agro- ecosystem. - Methods of control. Integrated pest management: changes to the relationships between insects and climate, between insects and plants, between insects and biotic communities. Protection and importation of pest control agents; spread of pathogenic microorganisms, genetic manipulation. Means of biotechnical management. Mechanical management. Silvicultural criteria. Insecticides and their mechanisms of action - formulas. - IPM (integrated pest management).
V. FOREST ENTOMOLOGY - Classification of woods. Forest ecology. Forest ecosystem. Climate and edaphic factors. General notions on forest insects. - Leaf litter. Cryptosphere. Organisms involved in the process of humogenesis. - Insects in the forest: the positive and negative effects. Relationships between insects and plants (tritrophic relationships). Influence of biotic and abiotic factors. - Damage caused by insects to forests. Predisposition of forest and resistance to phytophages.
SPECIAL SECTION Recognition, morphological and biological characteristics of the Insect Orders, Families and Species listed below.
J.F. Abgrall, A. Soutrenon ¿ La forêt et son ennemis. Cemagref, Grenoble. AA. VV. ¿ Manuale diZoologia agraria. Antonio Delfino Editore. A. Battisti et al. Lineamenti di zoologia forestale. Padova University Press. P. Baronio, N. Baldassari. Insetti dannosi ai boschi di conifere. Edagricole editore R.G. Davies ¿ Lineamenti di Entomologia. Zanichelli. R. Dajoz - Ecologie des insectes forestiers. Gaulthier-Villars.
The course teaches the students what causes plant diseases, how they develop and spread. It covers the biology, epidemiology, ecological and economic importance, diagnosis and management of the most commonly occurring diseases giving students concepts of plant pathology of forest, shade trees and cultivated species. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental concepts associated with plant pathology. Lectures regard the following subjects: The concept of disease in plants, classification of plant diseases, importance of plant diseases in crop production. Characteristics of plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses and phytoplasmas. Parasitism and the different stages in the development of diseases. Plant disease epidemiology: the element of an epidemic; structure, development and patterns of epidemics; Principles of plant disease control: control methods that exclude, eradicate or reduce tha pathogen inoculum; direct protection of plants from pathogens by chemical and biological control. Lectures concern important diseases affecting important plant species characteristic of mountain agriculture and woods: - Environmental factors that cause plant diseases: temperatute, soil moisture, soil structure, light, air and soil pollutants, and wounds. - Plant diseases caused by viruses and phytoplasmas: poplar mosaic; elm and celtis yellows - Plant diseases caused by bacteria: crown gall; bacterial cankers; fireblight of rosaceous hosts; bacterial diseases of poplar and walnut. - Root diseases caused by fungi: seed rot; Phytophthora foot, crown and trunk rots, ?ink disease?; root and butt rot caused by Armillaria spp. and Heterobasidion annosum. - Vascular wilts, stem rot, stem and twig cankers: canker stain disease of plane tree, resin bleeding and canker of Cupressus spp.; Dutch elm disease; various twigs cankers. - Foliar diseases: powdery mildews, anthracnoses, leaf curl diseases, downy mildews. - Rusts: stem rust of wheat and other cereals; rusts of forest trees. - Wood rot and decays caused by basidiomycetes.
During the ex-cathedra lessons will be treated some of the examples of the disease in the course of exercises in the classroom, students will develop some with the help of the teacher and the rest, always included in the program, they will be left to the individual student study.
Topics addressed by the students, individually or in small groups, during exercises and all documents produced will be shared with the other course participants and may be subject to verification in the examination.
Appunti dalle lezioni. Belli G. - Patologia Vegetale, Piccin, Padova, 2012. Capretti P. Ragazzi A., Elementi di patologia forestale, Pàtron Editore, Bologna, 2009. Matta A.- Fondamenti di Patologia Vegetale, Patron Editore, Bologna, 1996 Agrios G.N. Plant pathology Academic Press. Capretti, Moriondo F., Introduzione alla Patologia Forestale UTET. http://www.pk.uni-bonn.de/ppigb/ppigb.htm