Describe EU regulations on product labelling and on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs. Supply students with the ability to choose the specific parameters and to individuate the specific analytical techniques suitable for the evaluation of chemical, biochemical and technological quality and/or possible adulterations of different dairy products.
Expected learning outcomes
Employment of the different analytical techniques to highlight quality aspects of milk and other dairy products. Recognition of possible adulterations; identification and application of appropriate analytical techniques to highlight them. Choice of appropriate parameters and analytical techniques to evidence specific compositional properties of P.D.O. dairy products, suitable for their characterization and protection from imitations.
Legal aspects of food labelling: Regulation (EU) 1169/2011: on the provision of food information to consumers Regulation (EC) 510/2006: on the protection of geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs Regulation (EU) 1151/2012: on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs
Basic chemical determinations for dairy products: Proteins and nitrogen fractions (NCN; NPN, etc.) (Kjeldahl; Dumas) Fat (Röse-Gottlieb; Gerber) Lactose/reducing sugars (HPLC; Fehling) Minerals (Ca, salt¿) Rapid I.R. methods: the Milkoscan
Advanced chemical and biochemical determinations for dairy products: High Performance Liquid Chromatography Ion Exchange Chromatography Gas chromatography Enzymatic methods
Most frequent adulterations of dairy products and methods suitable to detect them: sale of reconstituted milk powder as liquid milk ¿fresh¿ milk from previously pasteurized milk addition of extraneous lipids to dairy products in order to reach legal fat content Detection of reconstituted milk powder in Mozzarella cheese Detection of cow¿s milk in buffalo and in ewe¿s or goat¿s milk cheese
Product characterisation: Evaluation of cheese typicalness (FAA, IEC) Verification of ripening duration (pyro-glutamyl-γ3- casein) Verification of milk heat treatment in raw milk cheeses (ALP) Verification of rind addition to grated cheese (peptides)
Students¿ course notes Slides of the lessons (provided on request) Internet sites indicated during lessons