Quality and genuineness of milk and dairy products

A.Y. 2017/2018
Overall hours
Learning objectives
Describe EU regulations on product labelling and on quality
schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs.
Supply students with the ability to choose the specific parameters
and to individuate the specific analytical techniques suitable for
the evaluation of chemical, biochemical and technological quality
and/or possible adulterations of different dairy products.
Expected learning outcomes
Employment of the different analytical techniques to highlight
quality aspects of milk and other dairy products. Recognition of
possible adulterations; identification and application of appropriate
analytical techniques to highlight them.
Choice of appropriate parameters and analytical techniques to
evidence specific compositional properties of P.D.O. dairy
products, suitable for their characterization and protection from
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Course syllabus
Legal aspects of food labelling:
Regulation (EU) 1169/2011: on the provision of food information
to consumers
Regulation (EC) 510/2006: on the protection of geographical
indications and designations of origin for agricultural products
and foodstuffs
Regulation (EU) 1151/2012: on quality schemes for agricultural
products and foodstuffs

Basic chemical determinations for dairy products:
Proteins and nitrogen fractions (NCN; NPN, etc.) (Kjeldahl;
Fat (Röse-Gottlieb; Gerber)
Lactose/reducing sugars (HPLC; Fehling)
Minerals (Ca, salt¿)
Rapid I.R. methods: the Milkoscan

Advanced chemical and biochemical determinations for dairy
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Ion Exchange Chromatography
Gas chromatography
Enzymatic methods

Most frequent adulterations of dairy products and methods
suitable to detect them:
sale of reconstituted milk powder as liquid milk
¿fresh¿ milk from previously pasteurized milk
addition of extraneous lipids to dairy products in order to reach
legal fat content
Detection of reconstituted milk powder in Mozzarella cheese
Detection of cow¿s milk in buffalo and in ewe¿s or goat¿s milk

Product characterisation:
Evaluation of cheese typicalness (FAA, IEC)
Verification of ripening duration (pyro-glutamyl-γ3-
Verification of milk heat treatment in raw milk cheeses (ALP)
Verification of rind addition to grated cheese (peptides)
Teaching methods
Students¿ course notes
Slides of the lessons (provided on request)
Internet sites indicated during lessons
AGR/16 - AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 6
Laboratories: 32 hours
Lessons: 32 hours