Il corso intende presentare allo studente lo stato delle conoscenze sugli effetti dell'interazione dei diversi tipi di radiazione ionizzante con la materia vivente , ai diversi livelli di organizzazione biologica, attraverso l'analisi dei risultati di studi sperimentali ed epidemiologici e dei relativi modelli interpretativi . Le conoscenze acquisite sono utili a chi opererà , oltre che nella ricerca in questo campo, in ambito aziendale di tipo medico e nel campo della radioprotezione.
Introduction Interaction of radiation with matter. Energy deposition at the microscopic and track level . Radiation quantities relevant in radiobiology ( Dose, LET , microsimetric quantities) . Elements of radiation chemistry, radiation chemistry of water .
Radiation effects at the subcellular and cell level Elements of cell biology and mechanisms of cell proliferation. Radiation induced DNA damage and DNA damage repair mechanisms. Chromosome aberrations. Inactivation of cell proliferation. Theories and models for cell survival . Apoptosis Mutations . Cell neoplastic transformation . Bystander and adaptative effects.
Modification of the radiation response Cycle effects. Oxygen effect . Radiation sensitizing and protective substances. Dose fractionation and rate effects . LET effects .
Radiation effects in tissues, organs and the whole body Acute effects : cell survival in relation to tissues and organs effects . Tissues and organs radiosensitivity. Radiation syndromes and lethality. Prenatal radiation effects. Late effects : Nonstochastic effects in normal tissues and organs. Stochastic effects : radiation cancerogenesis in experimental animals and in human populations ( epidemiological data ), genetic effects.
Radiobiology in radiotherapy Cell growth in normal and tumour tissues . Dose-response curves in radiotherapy. Dose-fractionation effects, calculation of the isoeffect relationship. Oxygen effects and tumour response . Other factors modulating tumour response (size , radiosensitivity.) Tumour control probability and tolerance of normal tissues. Physical and radiobiological basis of hadron therapy