The objective of the course is the knowledge of the main characteristics of the soil, and its principal functions agronomic aspects related to its vulnerability in relation to different uses and its classification.
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge of the chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, their interactions with plants and environment and the soil classification.
Lesson period: First semester
(In case of multiple editions, please check the period, as it may vary)
Definition of the soil: the soil as open system. The soil main functions: production function, protective, natural function. Soil as a three-phase system: solid, liquid and gaseous. Theoretical structure of a soil profile. Minerals and rocks: mineral silicates, classification and structure of silicate minerals. Processes of minerals alteration: disintegration and decay, action of water, wind, glaciers and biotic entities. Products of alteration: clays. Structure of the clay: 1:1 clays, 2:1 clays, heterovalent isomorphous substitutions. The physical properties of the soil: real and apparent texture, structure, density and porosity. The organic matter: humic and non humic component, processes of accumulation and consumption in relation to soil fertility. Action of the substance on the chemical, physical and biological properties of the soil. Chemical properties of the soil: adsorption and exchange: main theories, the characteristics and composition of the exchange complex of the soil, degree of base saturation, cation adsorption and anion specific and non-specific, complex inner-sphere and outer-sphere. The soil-water relationships. The soil-air relations: soil as a "respiratory system". Red-ox potential of the soil. Chemical properties of soil: different pH values (in water and potential). Acid, basic, sodium, submerged soils. Soils with extreme pH: possible correction. Soil fertility. Nitrogen cycle. The phosphorus cycle. Sulfur cycle and other meso and micro elements in relation to the availability in the soil. Fertilizers: mineral, organic, amendments and corrective. The use of sludges and manures: principals agronomic and environmental aspects. Soil Taxonomy. Land Capability Classification. Soil analyses (laboratory).
Libri di testo P. Violante ¿Chimica del suolo e nutrizione delle piante¿ ¿ Edagricole L. Radaelli e L. Calamai ¿Chimica del terreno¿ ¿ Ed. Piccin P. Sequi ¿Fondamenti di chimica del suolo¿ ¿ Ed. Patron