PHYSICS OF SURFACES 1
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This course introduces ideas and concepts which are at the basis of physical phenomena occurring at surfaces and interfaces.
While focusing on the main conceptual points, this course also provides a wide overview on phenomenology and on the main experimental techniques.
This course is meant to bring students starting from elementary concepts of quantum mechanics and solid-state physics to the knowledge of the main tools allowing them to understand the most recent literature in surface physics. The detailed programme is the following:
1) Development of Surface Physics in the second half of the 20th century. Impinging rate. Langmuir isotherm.
2) Surface thermodinamics: equimolar Gibbs surface. Surface free energy. Surface tension. Perfectly elastic and plastic deformations. Faceting.
3) Crystal structure: The five Bravais lattices in 2D, 2D unit cells. Miller indices and ideal surfaces. 2D reciprocal lattice. Relaxation and reconstruction. Adsorbates. Examples. Vicinal surfaces.
4) Overview of experimental techniques giving access to structural and /or compositional properties. Techniques to access directly the 2D reciprocal lattice. LEED. Examples of LEED spectra. Advantages and limitations of the LEED techniques. High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED). Introduction to Auger spectroscopy (AES) and related theoretical tools and theoretical interpretation.
7) Theory of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) within the Tersoff-Hamann approximation. Examples; basics of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); examples.
8) Metal surfaces in the Jellium model. Work function, macroscopic field, contact potential. Surface states: Tamm and Shockley models. Surface projection of three-dimensional bulk bands. Resonances. Band narrowing. Surface Core-Level Shifts.
9) Fresnel reflectivity and deviations. RAS and SDR spectra. Example: Si(100). Excitonic effects: optical gap and quasiparticle gap, examples.
10) Surface phonons. Resonances. Examples: graphite, LiF (001). Surface mode polarization. Elastic continuum limit. Rayleigh wave and applications.
11) Density Functional Theory. Local Density Approximation. Similarities and differences compared to Hartree-Fock. Slabs and supercells for the calculation of electronic and phonon surface bands.
1. elementary diffraction theory
2. Basic knowledge of thermodynamics. thermodynamic potential concept
3. Boltzmann statistics
4. Fourier Transform
5. Plane and spherical waves
6. Elementary quantum mechanics: wave equation function
Schroedinger, potential barrier, hydrogen atom, many-electrons atoms.
7. Concept of bands in a solid (at least the one-dimensional case)
8. Concept of phonons in a solid (at least the one-dimensional case)
9. Classical and quantum harmonic oscillator
10. Maxwell's equations in vacuum and in materials
11. Perturbation theory for the calculation of corrections to the eigenvalues and eigenvectors to first order.
The exam consists of an oral discussion focused on the topics covered in the course.
Hans Luth, "Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films", 4th edition, Springer, Berlin, 2001. (The 3rd edition was published under the title: "Surfaces and Interfaces of Solid Materials")
Friedhelm Bechstedt, "principles of surface physics" (Advanced texts in physics), Springer, Berlin, 2002
M.C.Desjonqueres, D. Spanjaard, "concepts in surface physics", Springer, Berlin, 1993
A.Zangwill, "physics at surfaces", Cambridge univ. Press Cambridge, 1988
Attendance: Highly recommended;
Delivery mode: Traditional.
Quantum Mechanics and Structure of Matter 1
The course includes some visits to laboratories and some numerical exercises (computer-based), the attendance of the latter is also evaluated for the exam.