Veterinary Anatomic Pathology 2

A.Y. 2017/2018
Overall hours
Learning objectives
Scopo del corso di Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria II è quello di fornire agli studenti le nozioni necessarie per riconoscere, descrivere, interpretare e classificare (diagnosi anatomo-patologica) le modificazioni morfologiche (lesioni, alterazioni) degli apparati cardio-circolatorio, muscolo-scheletrico, urinario e riproduttore nel corso delle principali malattie degli animali domestici e di correlare tali modificazioni alla loro causa (eziologia) al loro sviluppo (patogenesi) ed eventuale evoluzione. Il corso si prefigge altresì l'intento di fornire le nozioni di base relative alle più comuni patologie neoplastiche degli animali domestici. Lo studente dovrà inoltre apprendere le tecniche necroscopiche di base per applicarle, unitamente alle conoscenze precedentemente acquisite, alla pratica diagnostica.
Al termine del corso, lo studente dovrebbe essere in grado di decodificare correttamente la diagnosi delle patologie trattate comprendendone la valenza prognostica o le ricadute sanitarie e/o economiche e saper definire le corrette procedure atte a condurre alla diagnosi.
Expected learning outcomes
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Modulo: Anatomia patologica 2
Course syllabus
Cardiovascular system pathology (hours 4)
Heart - fluid accumulations in the pericardial sac, serous atrophy of pericardial fat, pericarditis, myocardial degeneations and necrosis, dietetic myocardial dystrophy, cardiomyopaties, myocarditis, parasites, endocardial calcification, valvular endocardiosis, endocarditis
Arteries - ruptures, aneurysms, thrombosis, degenerative and regressive arteriopaties (amyloidosis, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, calcification, fibrinoid change of the arterial wall), arteritis, blood vessels parasites
Veins - ectasia, varicosity, thrombosis, phlebitis

Hematopoietic system pathology (hours 3)
Spleen - Developmental abnormalities, ectopy, ruptures, circulatory disturbances (congestion, hematomas, infarction), metabolic changes (amyloidosis, hemosiderosis, necrosis), splenitis, parasites
Lymph nodes - atrophy, pigmentary changes, necrosis, , circulatory disturbances, lymphadenitis, lymphangectasis, lymphangytis

Urinary system pathology (hours 4)
Kidney - Developmental abnormalities, circulatory disturbances (hemorrhage, infarction), trophic, degenerative and regressive changes (atrophy, vacuolar tubular degeneration, lipidosis, amyloidosis, necrosis), pigmentary and chrystalline nephrosis, nephritis (Glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, purulent nephritis, granulomatous nephritis), parasitic diseases of the kidney
Lower urinary system - Hydronephrosis, developmental abnormalities of the urinary bladder, bovine enzootic hematuria, urolithiasis, cystitis

Male reproductive system pathology (hour 1)
Testis - Developmental abnormalities (aplasia, chryptorchidism, hermaphrodite), atrophy, necrosis, calcification, orchitis, periorchitis, vaginalitis, sperm granuloma
Prostate gland - hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, prostatic cysts, prostatitis
Penis and prepuce - phimosis, paraphimosis, posthitis, balanoposthitis (EHV3 and Trypanosoma equiperdum, habronemiasis)

Female reproductive system pathology (hour 1)
Hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphrodite, oophoritis, ovarian cysts, hydrosalpinx, salpingitis, Developmental abnormalities of the uterus, uterine distopy, uterine and vaginal prolapse, cystic endometrial hyperplasy, hydrometra, mucometra, adenomyosis, endometritis, metritis, biopsie uterine biopsies in mare, vaginitis, vulvovaginitis

Abortion (hour 1)
Embryonic death, mummification, maceration, infectious abortion (bovine, small ruminants, equine, swine, dog and cat)

Scheletal muscle pathology (hours 2)
Circulatory disturbances, atrophy, lipomatosis, vacuolar, granular, hyaline degeneration, Zenker's necrosis, calcification, dietetic myopaties, myositis, granulomas, parassiti (sarcosporidiosis, cysticercosis, trichinosis)

Mammary gland pathology (The topic will be treated during practices with slides projection, description and discussion of the most important changes and lesions. Slide presentation with notes will be available)

Bone and joints pathology (The topic will be treated during practices to small groups using museum material (bones). Slide presentation with notes will be available).
Fracture, osteoporosis, dystrophy (rachitism, osteomalacia, fibrous osteodystrophy, fluorosis, Hypervitaminosis A, acropachia), pigmental changes, periostitis, osteomyelitis. Dyscopathy, arthritis and polyarthritis


Bone and joints pathology: practical rotation with small groups of students using pathologic material form museum (hous 2)
Local and systemic bone malformations, fracture, osteoporosis, dystrophy (fluorosis, Hypervitaminosis A, acropachia), periostitis, osteomyelitis, arthritis.

Description and discussion of gross changes of organs: practical rotation with small groups of students using organs from slaughters (Necropsy room) (3 rotations of 2 hours)
Serous athrophy of fat, pericarditis, endocarditis, infartcion of kidney, nephritis, lymph nodes pigmentations, lymphadenitis, splenic congestion, perisplenitis, splenitis, artritis are the most frequent observed and discussed findings

Projection, description and discussion of images of gross lesions of organs. (Classroom) (4 rotations of 2 hours).
Some of the major and most frequent lesions of cardiovascular system pathology, hematopoietic system pathology, urinary system pathology, male reproductive system pathology, female reproductive system pathology, abortion, mammary gland pathology, bone and joints pathology, scheletal muscle pathology, are described and discussed.
Modulo: Oncologia
Course syllabus
The module (2 CFU of theoretical teaching) consists of 2 parts:
1) General Veterinary Oncology:
Definition of tumor, characteristics of benign and malignant tumors, hallmarks of differentiation, invasion and metastasis) (2 hours)
Classification of tumors, diagnosis of tumors, staging and grading, risk factors, basic epidemiologic informations in veterinary oncology) (1 hour)

2) Systemic Veterinary Oncology (general considerations and classification, incidence, age, breed and sex predilection, morphological features of the tumors of each organ system with a special emphasis on the most frequent neoplastic conditions of domestic animals)
Tumors of the oral cavity, esophagus and forestomach (hour 1)
Oral cavity - papilloma, fibropapilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, epulisis, melanocytoma and melanoma, myoblastoma, lymphoma
Tonsils - squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma
Esophagus - papilloma, fibropalilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma/osteosarcoma (Spirocerca lupi)
Gastric and enteric tumors (hour 1)
Stomach - adenoma, adenocarcinoma, equine squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach, leiomyoma, lymphoma
Intestine - adenoma, small intestine and colon rectal adenocarcinoma, lymphoma
Tumors od the liver and the pancreas (hour 1)
Liver - Epatocellular adenoma and carcinoma, Gallbladder adenoma and adenocarcinoma, Lymphoma. Secondary neoplasms
Pancreas - Exocrine adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Endocrine adenomas and adenocarcinomas.
Tumorss of the integumentary system (2 hours)
Epithelial tumors: papilloma, fibropapilloma
Hair follicle neoplasms, sebaceous glands, sweat, hepatoid glands, anal sacs
Melanocytic malignancies: melanocytoma and melanoma
Mesenchymal neoplasms: fibroma, equine sarcoid, fibrosarcoma, hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, mastocytoma, histiocytoma and histiocytic sarcoma, lymphoma, extramedullary plasmocytoma
Respiratory, heart and serosae neoplasms (hour 1)
Respiratory tumors: nasal carcinomas, goat enzootic nasal carcinoma, pulmonary carcinomas, ovine pulmonary adenomatosis. Secondary Neoplasms
Heart tumors: rhabdomyoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, lymphoma, hemangiosarcoma
Tumors of the serosae: mesothelioma
Nervous System Neoplasms (Hour 1)
General features and most frequent neoplasms of the Central Nervous System
Haematopoietic System Neoplasms (Hour 1)
General classifications of lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative neoplasms. Gross morphological features of splenic, lymph nodes and thymus of most frequent lymphoproliferative neoplasms.
Urinary System Neoplasms (Hour 1)
Renal tumors: Adenoma, carcinoma, nephroblastoma, lymphoma
Urinary tumors: papillomas and urothelial carcinoma
Male and female genital malignancy (2 o'clock)
Testicular cancer, prostate cancer, papilloma and penile carcinoma, transmissible venereal tumor
Ovarian tumors, leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma, transmissible venereal tumor
Mammary tumors (1 hour)
General features of canine and feline mammary tumors: general classification criteria, most frequent histotypes
Tumorss of Bones and Skeletal Muscles (Hour 1)
General Classifications of Bone Neoplasms
Modulo: Autopsie
Course syllabus
The module consists of 3 credits
- 1 Credit (8 hours) of theoretical lessons
- 2 credits (32 hours) of practices, mostly in necropsy hall examining cadavers of small and large animals and a part edicated to seminars in which images of necropsy acses are illustrated and discussed.

- Course introduction (1 HOUR). Definitions, motivation and advantages of the necropsy.
- Death verification and animal history collection (2 HOURS)- how to verify that the animal is death. Detailed list of the important animal historical data to be cololected before necrpsy. Environmental data of the place the corps was dead/found dead.
- Post-mortem modification and putrefaction (3HOURS) . Hypostasis and hypostatic spots evolution, cadaveric and putrfactive spots. Algor, pallor ang rigor mortis. Characteristics of the animal and of the environment that can influence rigor mortis. Cadaveric dehydration, ocular post-mortem alterations. Putrefactive meteorism and emphysema.
- Exams of the single abdominal and thoracic organs (2 HOURS). How to extract the various organs and in which order. Principal indicators of pathology organ by organ

- Necropsy of pet animals (10 HOURS). In necropsy hall, students are divided in small groups,e ach one examining a cat or a dog. Studernts decribe the observed lesions to be discussed with the teacher in order to individuate the possible cause of the death.
- Necrpsy of large animals (10 HOURS). In necropsy hall, students are divided in small groups,e ach one examining bovine, swine or equine. Studernts decribe the observed lesions to be discussed with the teacher in order to individuate the possible cause of the death.
- Seminars (12 HOURS). 6 SEMINARS OF 2 HOURS EACH in which at teh beginning are showed the single steps of the necropsy (adults and neonates). Images illustrating the necropsy findings of the most important infectious diseases of dog and cat and the most important organs lesions are illustrated and discussed with students. Images of weapon healings and brief comments on ballistic.
Modulo: Anatomia patologica 2
Course syllabus
Not provided
Modulo: Oncologia
Course syllabus
Not provided
Modulo: Autopsie
Course syllabus
Not provided
Modulo: Anatomia patologica 2
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 3
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Attività esercitative ripetute a gruppi di studenti
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Modulo: Autopsie
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 3
Practicals: 32 hours
Lessons: 8 hours
Professor: Grieco Valeria
Attività esercitative ripetute a gruppi di studenti
Professors: Grieco Valeria, Riccaboni Pietro, Sironi Giuseppe
Modulo: Oncologia
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Giudice Chiara
Pathology ward in Veterinary hospital - Lodi
Monday to Friday, by appointment
Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria - Lodi