The aim of the course is to give students basic knowledge for management of the fundamental biochemical and technological aspects involved in the production of wine, beer and spirits. Next to the technology, students will learn also about the legislation in the field of alcoholic beverages making.
WINE - Economic indicators and legislation. Composition of grapes; changes of main grape components during maturation and the importance thereof for the fermentation process and wine quality. Criteria for determining harvest readiness. Grape and exogenous enzymes. Aromatic compounds: terpenic fraction, methoxypyrazines, sulphur compounds, norisoprenoic compounds. Glycosidasic enzymes. Phenolic substances: anthocyans, flavanols, procyanidines, tannins. Polimerization and stabilization of colour. Oxidative pathway in must. The harvesting and handling of grapes, must and skins before, during and after fermentation. Taxonomy and ecology of grape and wine yeasts. Yeast oenological characteristics and condition for yeasts development. Biochemistry of alcoholic fermentation and metabolic pathways of wine yeasts. Microbial spoilage of wines and applied aspects of moulds and lactic acid bacteria during winemaking. Malolactic fermentation. Use of sulphur dioxide in must and wine treatment. Products and methods complementing the effect of sulphur dioxide. Principles of winemaking including schemes of grape processing and special demands in individual technological practices: white, red, rose and sparkling wines, special wines and wines of special quality. Fining agents use optimization. Protein, tartrate, oxidative, colour and metal stability Principles and techniques for physicochemical and microbiological stabilization of wine. Enzymes in winemaking. Bottling. Wood barrel ageing. Quality control and product specifications. Sensory evaluation of wines. BEER- Economic indicators and legislation. Raw materials used in brewing. Structure of the barley grain. Enzymic modification and biochemical changes occurring during germination. Characteristics and production of the main classes of malts used in brewing. Milling of malt and wort production (mashing). Water quality (source, ionic composition, treatments). Principal mashing methods and mashing biochemistry (starch conversion, proteolysis..). Hops: processing and forms used in brewing, specifications and introductory hop chemistry. Wort boiling, clarification and cooling. Brewing yeast management and fermentation. Brewing yeast taxonomy and biochemistry. Biological and chemical processes that contribute to the maturation of beer. Formation of non-biological hazes and stabilisation against non-biological haze. Clarification and filtration. Bottling. Sensory analysis of beer. DISTILLED BEVERAGES - Distillation principles. The properties of ethanol-water mixture. Batch and continuous distillation. Processing of grappa, Cognac, brandy, whisky, rum, gin and vodka.
"Lecture notes and copies of the slides used for the lectures. Suggested books: Ribereau-Gayon P et al.. Trattato di Enologia vol. 1 e 2. Edagricole, Bologna. George J. Fix. Principles of Brewing Science: A Study of Serious Brewing Issues. Ed. Brewers publications"